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2022 ◽  
Michael E Tang ◽  
Thaidra Gaufin ◽  
Ryan Anson ◽  
Wenhong Zhu ◽  
William C Mathews ◽  

Background We investigated the effect of HIV on COVID-19 outcomes with attention to selection bias due to differential testing and to comorbidity burden. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis using four hierarchical outcomes: positive SARS-CoV-2 test, COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hospital mortality. The effect of HIV status was assessed using traditional covariate-adjusted, inverse probability weighted (IPW) analysis based on covariate distributions for testing bias (testing IPWs), HIV infection status (HIV IPWs), and combined models. Among PWH, we evaluated whether CD4 count and HIV plasma viral load (pVL) discriminated between those who did or did not develop study outcomes using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Between March and November 2020, 63,319 people were receiving primary care services at UCSD, of whom 4,017 were people living with HIV (PWH). PWH had 2.1 times the odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test compared to those without HIV after weighting for potential testing bias, comorbidity burden, and HIV-IPW (95% CI 1.6-2.8). Relative to persons without HIV, PWH did not have an increased rate of COVID-19 hospitalization after controlling for comorbidities and testing bias [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 0.5, 95% CI: 0.1-1.4]. PWH had neither a different rate of ICU admission (aIRR:1.08, 95% CI; 0.31-3.80) nor in-hospital death (aIRR:0.92, 95% CI; 0.08-10.94) in any examined model. Neither CD4 count nor pVL predicted any of the hierarchical outcomes among PWH. Conclusions PWH have a higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis but similar outcomes compared to those without HIV.

2022 ◽  
Harsh Goel ◽  
Kashyap Shah ◽  
Janish Kothari ◽  
Timothy Daly ◽  
Pooja Saraiya ◽  

Abstract Background: COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented global pandemic, with cardiovascular risk factors predicting outcomes. We investigated whether baseline trans-thoracic echocardiography could refine risk beyond clinical risk factors. Methods: Symptomatic COVID-19 positive (RT-PCR) adults across St Luke’s University Health Network between March 1st-October 31st 2021, with trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) within 15-180 days preceding COVID-19 positivity were selected. Demographic/clinical/echocardiographic variables were extracted from patients’ EHR and compared between groups stratified by disease severity. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of hospitalization. Results: 192 patients were included. 87 (45.3%) required hospitalization, 34 (17.7%) suffered severe disease (need for ICU care/mechanical ventilation/in-hospital death). Age, co-morbidities, and several echocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent in moderate-severe versus mild disease. On multivariate analysis, age (OR 1.039, 95% CI 1.011-1.067), coronary artery disease (OR 4.184, 95% CI 1.451-12.063), COPD (OR 6.886, 95% CI 1.396-33.959) and left atrial (LA) diameter ≥4.0cm (OR 2.379, 95% CI 1.031-5.493) predicted need for hospitalization. Model showed excellent discrimination (ROC AUC 0.809, 95% CI 0.746-0.873). Conclusion: Baseline LA enlargement independently predicts risk of hospitalization in COVID-19. When available, baseline LA enlargement could identify patients for 1) closer outpatient follow-up, and 2) counseling vaccine-hesitancy.

2022 ◽  
pp. 021849232110701
Jian Li ◽  
Yueyun Zhou ◽  
Wei Qin ◽  
Cunhua Su ◽  
Fuhua Huang ◽  

Background Total arch replacement with modified elephant trunk technique plays an important role in treating acute type A aortic dissection in China. We aim to summarize the therapeutic effects of this procedure in our center over a 17-year period. Methods Consecutive patients treated at our hospital due to type A aortic dissection from January 2004 to January 2021 were studied. Relevant data of these patients undergoing total arch replacement with modified elephant trunk technique were collected and analyzed. Results A total of 589 patients were included with a mean age of 53.1 ± 12.2 years. The mean of cardiopulmonary bypass, cross-clamping, and selected cerebral perfusion time were 199.6 ± 41.9, 119.0 ± 27.2, and 25.1 ± 5.0 min, respectively. In-hospital death occurred in 46 patients. Multivariate analysis identified four significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality: preexisting renal hypoperfusion (OR 5.43; 95% CI 1.31 – 22.44; P = 0.020), cerebral malperfusion (OR 11.87; 95% CI 4.13 – 34.12; P < 0.001), visceral malperfusion (OR 4.27; 95% CI 1.01 – 18.14; P = 0.049), and cross-clamp time ≥ 130 min (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.72 – 6.19; P < 0.001). The 5, 10, and 15 years survival rates were 86.4%, 82.6%, and 70.2%, respectively. Conclusions Total arch replacement with modified elephant trunk technique is an effective treatment for acute type A aortic dissection with satisfactory perioperative results. Patients with preexisting renal hypoperfusion, cerebral malperfusion, visceral malperfusion, and long cross-clamp time are at a higher risk of in-hospital death.

Amir Emami ◽  
Fatemeh Javanmardi ◽  
Ali Akbari ◽  
Babak Shirazi Yeganeh ◽  
Tahereh Rezaei ◽  

Background: Identifying effective biomarkers plays a critical role on screening; rapid diagnosis; proper managements and therapeutic options, which is helpful in preventing serious complications. The present study aimed to compare the liver laboratory tests between alive and dead hospitalized cases for prediction and proper management of the patients. Methods: This retrospective, cross sectional study consists of all deceased patients admitted in one center in Shiraz, Iran during 19 Feb 2020 to 22 Aug 2021. For further comparison, we selected a 1:2 ratios alive group randomly. Results: Overall, 875 hospitalized cases died due to COVID-19. We selected 1750 alive group randomly. The median age was significantly higher in died group (65.96 vs 51.20). Regarding the laboratory findings during the hospitalization ALT, AST, Bili.D were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors but Albumin was less in deceased patients. It was revealed elevated levels of Albumin, AST, Bili.T and Bili.D were associated with increasing the risk of in hospital death. Moreover, the predictive effect of ALP and Bili.D had significantly more than others with high sensitivity and specify. Conclusion: We found patients with COVID-19 have reduced serum albumin level, and increase ALT and AST. The current results revealed abnormal liver chemistries is associated with poor outcome, which highlighted the importance of monitoring these patients more carefully and should be given more caution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Masatake Kobayashi ◽  
Amine Douair ◽  
Stefano Coiro ◽  
Gaetan Giacomin ◽  
Adrien Bassand ◽  

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) often display dyspnea associated with pulmonary congestion, along with intravascular congestion, both may result in urgent hospitalization and subsequent death. A combination of radiographic pulmonary congestion and plasma volume might screen patients with a high risk of in-hospital mortality in the emergency department (ED).Methods: In the pathway of dyspneic patients in emergency (PARADISE) cohort, patients admitted for acute HF were stratified into 4 groups based on high or low congestion score index (CSI, ranging from 0 to 3, high value indicating severe congestion) and estimated plasma volume status (ePVS) calculated from hemoglobin/hematocrit.Results: In a total of 252 patients (mean age, 81.9 years; male, 46.8%), CSI and ePVS were not correlated (Spearman rho &lt;0 .10, p &gt; 0.10). High CSI/high ePVS was associated with poorer renal function, but clinical congestion markers (i.e., natriuretic peptide) were comparable across CSI/ePVS categories. High CSI/high ePVS was associated with a four-fold higher risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted-OR, 95%CI = 4.20, 1.10-19.67) compared with low CSI/low ePVS, whereas neither high CSI nor ePVS alone was associated with poor prognosis (all-p-value &gt; 0.10; Pinteraction = 0.03). High CSI/high ePVS improved a routine risk model (i.e., natriuretic peptide and lactate)(NRI = 46.9%, p = 0.02), resulting in high prediction of risk of in-hospital mortality (AUC = 0.85, 0.82-0.89).Conclusion: In patients hospitalized for acute HF with relatively old age and comorbidity burdens, a combination of CSI and ePVS was associated with a risk of in-hospital death, and improved prognostic performance on top of a conventional risk model.

2022 ◽  
Qiang Hu ◽  
Quan-Yu Zhang ◽  
Cheng-Fei Peng ◽  
Zhuang Ma ◽  
Ya-Ling Han

Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of nicotinamide-based supportive therapy in lymphopenia for patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Methods: 24 patients diagnosed with the COVID-19 were randomly divided into two groups (n=12) during hospitalization in the ratio of 1:1. Based on the conventional treatment, the treatment group was given 100mg nicotinamide, five times a day. The control group only received routine treatments. The primary endpoint was the change in absolute lymphocyte counts. The secondary endpoints included both the in-hospital death and the composite endpoint of aggravation, according to upgraded oxygen therapy, improvement of nursing level, and ward rounds of superior physicians for changes of conditions. Results: The full blood counts before and after receiving the nicotinamide were comparable in each group (all P>0.05). Before and after receiving the nicotinamide, mean absolute lymphocyte counts were similar between the two groups ([0.94±0.26]*109/L versus [0.89±0.19]*109/L, P=0.565; [1.15±0.48]*109/L versus [1.02±0.28]*109/L, P=0.445, respectively). Therefore, there was no statistically significant difference in the lymphocyte improvement rate between the two groups (23.08±46.10 versus 16.52±24.10, P=0.67). There was also no statistically significant difference for the secondary endpoints between the two groups.Conclusion: Among patients with COVID-19, there was no statistically significant difference in change of full blood counts and the absolute lymphocyte counts before and after intervention in both groups. Therefore, no new evidence was found for the effect of niacinamide on lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19.Trial registration:, NCT04910230. Registered 1 June 2021-retrospectively registered.

Jill J. Savla ◽  
Mary E. Putt ◽  
Jing Huang ◽  
Samuel Parry ◽  
Julie S. Moldenhauer ◽  

BACKGROUND Children with single ventricle heart disease have significant morbidity and mortality. The maternal–fetal environment (MFE) may adversely impact outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that impaired MFE would be associated with an increased risk of death after stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a retrospective cohort study of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (and anatomic variants) who underwent stage 1 Norwood reconstruction between 2008 and 2018. Impaired MFE was defined as maternal gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and/or smoking during pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between impaired MFE and death while adjusting for confounders. Hospital length of stay was assessed with the competing risk of in‐hospital death. In 273 children, the median age at stage 1 Norwood reconstruction was 4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3–6 days). A total of 72 children (26%) were exposed to an impaired MFE; they had more preterm births (18% versus 7%) and a greater percentage with low birth weights <2.5 kg (18% versus 4%) than those without impaired MFE. Impaired MFE was associated with a higher risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 6.05; 95% CI, 3.59–10.21; P <0.001) after adjusting for age at surgery, Hispanic ethnicity, genetic syndrome, cardiac diagnosis, surgeon, and birth era. Children with impaired MFE had almost double the risk of prolonged hospital stay (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.41–2.70; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Children exposed to an impaired MFE had a higher risk of death following stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. Prenatal exposures are potentially modifiable factors that can be targeted to improve outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery.

2022 ◽  
Salvador Vicente Spina ◽  
Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira ◽  
Cesar Herrera ◽  
Ana Munera Echeverri ◽  
Pamela Rojo ◽  

Objectives To describe the use and findings of cardiopulmonary imaging - chest X-ray (cX-ray), echocardiography (cEcho), chest CT (cCT), lung ultrasound (LUS)) and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) - in COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in Latin America (LATAM) Background The SARS-Cov-2 is one of the largest and most active threats to healthcare in living memory. There is an information gap on imaging services resources (ISR) used and their findings during the pandemic in LATAM. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of COVID-19 inpatients conducted from March to December 2020 from 12 high-complexity centers in nine LATAM countries. Adults (> 18 yrs) with at least one imaging modality performed, followed from admission until discharge and/or in-hospital death, were included. Results We studied 1435 hospitalized patients (64% males) with a median age of 58 years classified into three regions: 262 from Mexico (Mx), 428 from Central America and Caribbean (CAC), and 745 from South America (SAm). More frequent comorbidities were overweight/obesity (61%), hypertension (45%), and diabetes (27%). During hospitalization, 58% were admitted to ICU. The in-hospital mortality was 28% (95%CI 25-30) highest in Mx (37%). The most frequent cardiopulmonary imaging performed were cCT (61%)-more frequent in Mx and SAm-, and cX-ray (46%) -significantly used in CAC-. The cEcho was carried out in 18%, similarly among regions, and LUS in 7%, more frequently in Mx. The cMRI was performed in only one patient in the cohort. Abnormal findings on the cX-ray were related to peripheral (63%) or basal infiltrates (52%), and in cCT with ground glass infiltrates (89%). Both were more commonly in Mx. In LUS, interstitial syndrome (56%) was the most related abnormal finding, predominantly in Mx and CAC. Conclusions The use and findings of cardiopulmonary imaging in LATAM varied between regions and may have been influenced by clinical needs, the personnel protection measures and/or hospitalization location.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Enmin Xie ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Songyuan Luo ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Ling Xue ◽  

Aims: The monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), a novel marker of inflammation and cardiovascular events, has recently been found to facilitate the diagnosis of acute aortic dissection. This study aimed to assess the association of preoperative MHR with in-hospital and long-term mortality after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD).Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 637 patients with acute TBAD who underwent TEVAR from a prospectively maintained database. Multivariable logistic and cox regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between preoperative MHR and in-hospital as well as long-term mortality. For clinical use, MHR was modeled as a continuous variable and a categorical variable with the optimal cutoff evaluated by receiver operator characteristic curve for long-term mortality. Propensity score matching was used to diminish baseline differences and subgroups analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results.Results: Twenty-one (3.3%) patients died during hospitalization and 52 deaths (8.4%) were documented after a median follow-up of 48.1 months. The optimal cutoff value was 1.13 selected according to the receiver operator characteristic curve (sensitivity 78.8%; specificity 58.9%). Multivariate analyses showed that MHR was independently associated with either in-hospital death [odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-3.85, P = 0.015] or long-term mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.31-2.41, P &lt; 0.001). As a categorical variable, MHR &gt; 1.13 remained an independent predictor of in-hospital death (OR 4.53, 95% CI 1.44-14.30, P = 0.010) and long-term mortality (HR 4.16, 95% CI 2.13-8.10, P &lt; 0.001). Propensity score analyses demonstrated similar results for both in-hospital death and long-term mortality. The association was further confirmed by subgroup analyses.Conclusions: MHR might be useful for identifying patients at high risk of in-hospital and long-term mortality, which could be integrated into risk stratification strategies for acute TBAD patients undergoing TEVAR.

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