gut microbial community
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2022 ◽  
Fatemeh Farahmandzad ◽  
Hossein Lanjanian ◽  
Ehsan Arefian ◽  
Kaveh Kavousi

Abstract Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), known as the disease of the century, is a complex condition that affects millions of people worldwide. IBD is influenced by numerous factors such as genetics, lifestyle, and the gut microbial community, yet the role of microorganisms in driving and controlling the disease remains poorly understood. As we know, preceding studies have mainly focused on assessing gut bacteria and less on bacteriophages or fungi, and no study on interactions of the gut microbial community in patients with IBD has looked at bacteriophages in addition to bacteria and fungi by sex. No distinct microbial regulatory candidate has been proposed so far.Results: Here, metagenomic data were obtained from 456 stool samples of 84 white race volunteers (40 females and 44 males) with no treatment history before sampling. Participants were studied by sex and the disease type using bioinformatics methods. Differences in interactions of bacteriophages, bacteria, fungi, and archaea in the gut of males and females with Crohn's disease were remarkable, indicating the necessity for different therapies for both groups. While, little difference was seen in the gut microbiome relations in females and males with ulcerative colitis.Conclusions: The fungal strain Malassezia globose CBS 7966 beside the bacterial species Bacteroides stercorisin ulcerative colitis and Parabacteroides phage YZ-2015b in Crohn's disease were the sex-independent regulatory candidates. Uncultured crAssphage was recommended as a sex-dependent regulatory candidate for IBD in men. However, the fungus Wickerhamomycesciferrii which had proposed as regulatory candidate in Crohn's disease, was age-dependent in females. Four bacteriophages, such as Escherichia phage pro147, were suggested for study candidates in the metabolism of IBD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alexandra Leeper ◽  
Ricardo Ekmay ◽  
Stephen Knobloch ◽  
Sigurlaug Skírnisdóttir ◽  
Madhushri Varunjikar ◽  

AbstractAtlantic salmon aquaculture is expanding, and with it, the need to find suitable replacements for conventional protein sources used in formulated feeds. Torula yeast (Cyberlindnera jadinii), has been identified as a promising alternative protein for feed and can be sustainably cultivated on lignocellulosic biomasses. The present study investigated the impact of torula yeast on the growth performance and gut microbiome of freshwater Atlantic salmon. A marine protein base diet and a mixed marine and plant protein base diet were tested, where conventional proteins were replaced with increasing inclusion levels of torula yeast, (0%, 10%, 20%). This study demonstrated that 20% torula yeast can replace fish meal without alteration to growth performance while leading to potential benefits for the gut microbiome by increasing the presence of bacteria positively associated with the host. However, when torula yeast replaced plant meal in a mixed protein diet, results suggested that 10% inclusion of yeast produced the best growth performance results but at the 20% inclusion level of yeast, potentially negative changes were observed in the gut microbial community, such as a decrease in lactic acid bacteria. This study supports the continued investigation of torula yeast for Atlantic salmon as a partial replacement for conventional proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Jihua Xu ◽  
Shenhui Jiang ◽  
Yanbo Wang ◽  
Jun Zhu ◽  

Busulfan is currently an indispensable anti-cancer drug, but the side effects on male reproductive system are so serious. Meanwhile, red-fleshed apples are natural products with high anthocyanin content. In this research, we analyzed the effect of red-fleshed apple anthocyanin extract (RAAE) on busulfan-treated mice. Compared with the busulfan group, main plasma biochemical indicators were significantly improved after RAAE treatment. Compared with BA0 (busulfan without RAAE) group, total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione catalase (GSH-Px) in RAAE treatment groups were obviously increased, while the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly decreased in the RAAE groups. In addition, we found RAAE alleviated busulfan-disrupted spermatogenesis through improving genes expression which are important for spermatogenesis, such as DDX4, PGK2, and TP1. Furthermore, we found that RAAE increased beneficial bacteria Akkermansia and Lactobacillaceae, and significantly depleted harmful bacteria Erysipelotrichia. The correlation studies indicated that RAAE ameliorated busulfan-induced rise in LysoPC levels through regulating gut microbial community and their associated metabolites. In conclusion, this study extends our understanding of the alleviated effect of RAAE on busulfan-induced male reproductive dysfunction through regulating the relationships between gut microbiota and metabolites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
David Minich ◽  
Christopher Madden ◽  
Mauricio A. Navarro ◽  
Leo Glowacki ◽  
Kristen French-Kim ◽  

Abstract Background Enteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in lorikeets that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. In this study, we examine gut microbiota in two lorikeet flocks with enteritis (Columbus Zoo and Aquarium—CZA; Denver Zoo—DZ). Since 2012, the CZA flock has experienced repeated outbreaks of enteritis despite extensive diet, husbandry, and clinical modifications. In 2018, both CZA and DZ observed a spike in enteritis. Recent research has revealed that the gut microbiota can influence susceptibility to enteropathogens. We hypothesized that a dysbiosis, or alteration in the gut microbial community, was making some lorikeets more susceptible to enteritis, and our goal was to characterize this dysbiosis and determine the features that predicted susceptibility. Results We employed 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the cloacal microbiota in lorikeets (CZA n = 67, DZ n = 24) over time. We compared the microbiota of healthy lorikeets, to lorikeets with enteritis, and lorikeets susceptible to enteritis, with “susceptible” being defined as healthy birds that subsequently developed enteritis. Based on sequencing data, culture, and toxin gene detection in intestinal contents, we identified Clostridium perfringens type A (CZA and DZ) and C. colinum (CZA only) at increased relative abundances in birds with enteritis. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry further identified the presence of gram-positive bacilli and C. perfringens, respectively, in the necrotizing intestinal lesions. Finally, using Random Forests and LASSO models, we identified several features (young age and the presence of Rhodococcus fascians and Pseudomonas umsongensis) associated with susceptibility to clostridial enteritis. Conclusions We identified C. perfringens type A and C. colinum associated with lorikeet necrohemorrhagic enteritis at CZA and DZ. Susceptibility testing of isolates lead to an updated clinical treatment plan which ultimately resolved the outbreaks at both institutions. This work provides a foundation for understanding gut microbiota features that are permissive to clostridial colonization and host factors (e.g. age, prior infection) that shape responses to infection.

Israr Khan ◽  
Yanrui Bai ◽  
Lajia Zha ◽  
Naeem Ullah ◽  
Habib Ullah ◽  

The mammalian gut microbial community, known as the gut microbiota, comprises trillions of bacteria, which co-evolved with the host and has an important role in a variety of host functions that include nutrient acquisition, metabolism, and immunity development, and more importantly, it plays a critical role in the protection of the host from enteric infections associated with exogenous pathogens or indigenous pathobiont outgrowth that may result from healthy gut microbial community disruption. Microbiota evolves complex mechanisms to restrain pathogen growth, which included nutrient competition, competitive metabolic interactions, niche exclusion, and induction of host immune response, which are collectively termed colonization resistance. On the other hand, pathogens have also developed counterstrategies to expand their population and enhance their virulence to cope with the gut microbiota colonization resistance and cause infection. This review summarizes the available literature on the complex relationship occurring between the intestinal microbiota and enteric pathogens, describing how the gut microbiota can mediate colonization resistance against bacterial enteric infections and how bacterial enteropathogens can overcome this resistance as well as how the understanding of this complex interaction can inform future therapies against infectious diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13477
Zeneng Wang ◽  
Jennie Hazen ◽  
Xun Jia ◽  
Elin Org ◽  
Yongzhong Zhao ◽  

L-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC), a nutritional supplement, has been demonstrated to improve neurological function. However, a new study suggests that GPC supplementation increases incident stroke risk thus its potential adverse effects warrant further investigation. Here we show that GPC promotes atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic Apoe−/− mice. GPC can be metabolized to trimethylamine N-oxide, a pro-atherogenic agent, suggesting a potential molecular mechanism underlying the observed atherosclerosis progression. GPC supplementation shifted the gut microbial community structure, characterized by increased abundance of Parabacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Bacteroides and decreased abundance of Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, and Roseburia, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These data are consistent with a reduction in fecal and cecal short chain fatty acids in GPC-fed mice. Additionally, we found that GPC supplementation led to an increased relative abundance of choline trimethylamine lyase (cutC)-encoding bacteria via qPCR. Interrogation of host inflammatory signaling showed that GPC supplementation increased expression of the proinflammatory effectors CXCL13 and TIMP-1 and activated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Finally, targeted and untargeted metabolomic analysis of murine plasma revealed additional metabolites associated with GPC supplementation and atherosclerosis. In summary, our results show GPC promotes atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms and that caution should be applied when using GPC as a nutritional supplement.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3107
Tamara Travinsky-Shmul ◽  
Olga Beresh ◽  
Janna Zaretsky ◽  
Shelley Griess-Fishheimer ◽  
Reut Rozner ◽  

Ultra processed foods (UPF) consumption is becoming dominant in the global food system, to the point of being the most recent cause of malnutrition. Health outcomes of this diet include obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, its effect on skeletal development has yet to be examined. This project studied the influence of UPF diet on the development and quality of the post-natal skeleton. Young female mice were fed with regular chow diet, UPF diet, UPF diet supplemented with calcium or with multivitamin and mineral complex. Mice fed UPF diet presented unfavorable morphological parameters, evaluated by micro-CT, alongside inferior mechanical performance of the femora, evaluated by three-point bending tests. Growth-plate histology evaluation suggested a modification of the growth pattern. Accumulation of adipose tissue within the bone marrow was significantly higher in the group fed UPF diet. Finally, microbiome 16SrRNA sequencing was used to explore the connection between diets, gut microbial community and skeletal development. Together, we show that consumption of UPF diet during the postnatal developmental period alters the microbiome and has negative outcomes on bone parameters and bone marrow adiposity. Micronutrients improved these phenotypes only partially. Thus, consuming a wholesome diet that contributes to a healthy microbiota is of a great significance in order to achieve healthy skeletal development.

2021 ◽  
Melinda Mei Lin Lau ◽  
Cindy Jia Yung Kho ◽  
Siew Chuiang Sia ◽  
Hung Hui Chung ◽  

Aims: The gut microbiota is referred to an extra organ and is ciritical in assisting the host in terms of nutrition and immunity. Environmental stressors could alter gut microbial community and cause gut inflammation. This study aimed to investigate and compare the gut microbiota community between healthy and diseased Tor tambroides. Methodology and results: In this study, such gut microbial alterations were explored using NGS-based 16S rDNA sequencing on the Malaysian mahseer (T. tambroides). Three adult healthy and three diseased adult Malaysian mahseers (showing signs of exophthalmia, coelomic distension and petechial haemorrhage) were obtained from LTT Aquaculture Sdn Bhd. Our results revealed significant differences in microbial diversity, composition and function between both populations of T. tambroides. Alpha diversity analysis depicts lower diversity of gut microbiota composition in diseased T. tambroides as compared to the healthy group. In particular, Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Bacteroides, Vibrio and Pseudomonas were found within gut microbiota of the diseased fishes. In addition, cellulose-degrading bacteria and protease-producing bacteria were identified from the gut of T. tambroides. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Thus, our findings emphasised on the association between the alteration in gut microbiota composition and infectious abdominal dropsy (IAD) in T. tambroides. This finding is important to provide basic information for further diagnosis, prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases in fish.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Qian Zhang ◽  
Shumin Wang ◽  
Xinyu Zhang ◽  
Kexin Zhang ◽  
Wenjuan Liu ◽  

Abstract Background As a pervasive insect that transmits a variety of pathogens to humans and animals, the housefly has abundant and diverse microbial communities in its intestines. These gut microbes play an important role in the biology of insects and form a symbiotic relationship with the host insect. Alterations in the structure of the gut microbial community would affect larval development. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism regulating the influence of specific bacteria on the development of housefly larvae. Methods For this study we selected the intestinal symbiotic bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei, which is beneficial to the growth and development of housefly larvae, and used it as a probiotic supplement in larval feed. 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology was used to explore the effect of E. hormaechei on the intestinal flora of housefly larvae, and plate confrontation experiments were performed to study the interaction between E. hormaechei and intestinal microorganisms. Results The composition of the gut microflora of the larvae changed after the larvae were fed E. hormaechei, with the abundance of Pseudochrobactrum, Enterobacter and Vagococcus increasing and that of Klebsiella and Bacillus decreasing. Analysis of the structure and interaction of larval intestinal flora revealed that E. hormaechei inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia stuartii and Providencia vermicola, and promoted the reproduction of beneficial bacteria. Conclusions Our study has explored the influence of specific beneficial bacteria on the intestinal flora of houseflies. The results of this study reveal the important role played by specific beneficial bacteria on the development of housefly larvae and provide insight for the development of sustained biological agents for housefly control through interference of gut microbiota. Graphical abstract

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