Flood Event
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 554
Fotios Spyropoulos ◽  
Ioannis Trichakis ◽  
Anthi-Eirini Vozinaki

In the framework of a water resources management class in the Technical University of Crete, a narrative-driven role-playing game (RPG) was planned and tested in the classroom, with the intent to raise awareness among the students on how floods can have an impact on the everyday lives of different citizens. During this game, the students had the opportunity to act as different stakeholders. In order to assess the impact of this game on participants’ thoughts of who might be affected by a flood event, two questionnaires were used, one before and one after the game. The results show that there was very positive feedback from the participants on how this RPG helped them realize the different implications a flood event might have on citizens and decision makers. The community-based aspect that was chosen for this RPG implementation showed the difficulties the specific roles would face as single individuals and as a community in general. Using a similar approach can help any stakeholder understand the challenges in a more direct way than with traditional lecturing and presentations.

2021 ◽  
Elco Koks ◽  
Kees Van Ginkel ◽  
Margreet Van Marle ◽  
Anne Lemnitzer

Abstract. Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands were hit by extreme precipitation and flooding in July 2021. This Brief Communication provides an overview of the impacts to large-scale critical infrastructure systems and how recovery has progressed during the first six months after the event. The results show that Germany and Belgium were particularly affected, with many infrastructure assets severely damaged or completely destroyed. Impacts range from completely destroyed bridges and sewage systems, to severely damaged schools and hospitals. We find that large-scale risk assessments, often focused on larger (river) flood events, do not find these local, but severe, impacts. This may be the result of limited availability of validation material. As such, this study will not only help to better understand how critical infrastructure can be affected by flooding, but can also be used as validation material for future flood risk assessments.

2021 ◽  
pp. 102-112
Blair S. Holloway

Coastal flooding occurs when saltwater inundates normally dry land and the resulting impacts can range from minor flooding of low-lying areas along the coast, to significant damage to property and structures. Previous research consistently suggests that if sea-level rise continues to increase along the East Coast of the United States, coastal flooding will occur more frequently. In order to document the history of coastal flooding along the southeastern Georgia and southeastern South Carolina coast, a coastal flood event database was created for National Ocean Service tide gauges located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina and Fort Pulaski, Georgia. Trends from the data show that coastal flooding is occurring more frequently with time at both tide gauges, particularly over the last five to ten years. Because of the increased frequency and worsening impacts of tidal flooding, a tide forecast tool is implemented operationally in an effort to improve deterministic tide forecasts. This study extends the dataset used in the Charleston Harbor forecast tool, expands the tool to Fort Pulaski, and compares the synoptic category forecast equations to an all-inclusive equation that does not differentiate by synoptic category. Results show that there is virtually no difference in the forecast accuracy between the all-inclusive forecast equation and the specific forecast equations based on synoptic category. Furthermore, the all-inclusive forecast equation can be implemented operationally, will help improve deterministic tide forecasts, and will likely aid in the decision-making process for Coastal Flood Watches, Warnings, and Advisories issued by the National Weather Service office in Charleston, South Carolina.

2021 ◽  
Vol 193 (12) ◽  
Oluwatola Adedeji ◽  
Adeyemi Olusola ◽  
Rakiya Babamaaji ◽  
Samuel Adelabu

SOIL ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 743-766
Virginie Sellier ◽  
Oldrich Navratil ◽  
John Patrick Laceby ◽  
Cédric Legout ◽  
Anthony Foucher ◽  

Abstract. Tracing the origin of sediment is needed to improve our knowledge of hydro-sedimentary dynamics at the catchment scale. Several fingerprinting approaches have been developed to provide this crucial information. In particular, spectroscopy provides a rapid, inexpensive and non-destructive alternative technique to the conventional analysis of the geochemical properties. Here, we investigated the performance of four multi-proxy approaches based on (1) colour parameters, (2) geochemical properties, (3) colour parameters coupled with geochemical properties and (4) the entire visible spectrum to discriminate sediment source contributions in a mining catchment of New Caledonia. This French archipelago located in the south-west Pacific Ocean is the world's sixth largest producer of nickel. Open-cast nickel mining increases soil degradation and the downstream transfer of sediments in river systems, leading to the river system siltation. The sediment sources considered in the current research were therefore sediment eroded from mining sub-catchments and non-mining sub-catchments. To this end, sediment deposited during two cyclonic events (i.e. 2015 and 2017) was collected following a tributary design approach in one of the first areas exploited for nickel mining on the archipelago, the Thio River catchment (397 km2). Source (n=24) and river sediment (n=19) samples were analysed by X-ray fluorescence and spectroscopy in the visible spectra (i.e. 365–735 nm). The results demonstrated that the individual sediment tracing methods based on spectroscopy measurements (i.e. (1) and (4)) were not able to discriminate sources. In contrast, the geochemical approach (2) did discriminate sources, with 83.1 % of variance in sources explained. However, it is the inclusion of colour properties in addition to geochemical parameters (3) which provides the strongest discrimination between sources, with 92.6 % of source variance explained. For each of these approaches ((2) and (3)), the associated fingerprinting properties were used in an optimized mixing model. The predictive performance of the models was validated through tests with artificial mixture samples, i.e. where the proportions of the sources were known beforehand. Although with a slightly lower discrimination potential, the “geochemistry” model (2) provided similar predictions of sediment contributions to those obtained with the coupled “colour + geochemistry” model (3). Indeed, the geochemistry model (2) showed that mining tributary contributions dominated the sediments inputs, with a mean contribution of 68 ± 25 % for the 2015 flood event, whereas the colour + geochemistry model (3) estimated that the mining tributaries contributed 65 ± 27 %. In a similar way, the contributions of mining tributaries were evaluated to 83 ± 8 % by the geochemistry model (2) versus 88 ± 8 % by the colour + geochemistry model (3) for the 2017 flood event. Therefore, the use of these approaches based on geochemical properties only (2) or of those coupled to colour parameters (3) was shown to improve source discrimination and to reduce uncertainties associated with sediment source apportionment. These techniques could be extended to other mining catchments of New Caledonia but also to other similar nickel mining areas around the world.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 3254
Stanisław Kostecki ◽  
Robert Banasiak

Due to extreme rainfall in 2010 in the Lusatian Neisse River catchment area (in Poland), a flood event with a return period of over 100 years occurred, leading to the failure of the Niedów dam. The earth-type dam constructed for cooling the Turów power plant was washed away, resulting in the rapid release of nearly 8.5 million m3 of water and the flooding of the downstream area with substantial material losses. Here we analyze the conditions and causes of the dam’s failure, with special attention given to the mechanism and dynamics of the compound breaching process, in which the dam’s upstream slope reinforcement played a specific and remarkable role. The paper also describes a numerical approach for simulating a combined flood event downstream from the dam with the use of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (MIKE21). Considering the specific local conditions, i.e., wide floodplain, meandering character of the main channel, embankment overtopping, and available data set, an iterative solution of the unsteady state problem is proposed. This approach enables realistic flood propagation estimates to be delivered, the dam breach outflow to be reconstructed, and several important answers concerning the consequences of the dam’s failure to be provided. Finally, the paper presents the reconstruction of the dam that is more resilient to extreme hydrological conditions under changing climate.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 3157
Lazar Ignjatović ◽  
Milan Stojković ◽  
Damjan Ivetić ◽  
Miloš Milašinović ◽  
Nikola Milivojević

The objective of this research is to introduce a novel framework to quantify the risk of the reservoir system outside the design envelope, taking into account the risks related to flood-protection and hydro-energy generation under unfavourable reservoir element conditions (system element failures) and hazardous situations within the environment (flood event). To analyze water system behavior in adverse conditions, a system analysis approach is used, which is founded upon the system dynamics model with a causal loop. The capability of the system in performing the intended functionality can be quantified using the traditional static measures like reliability, resilience and vulnerability, or dynamic resilience. In this paper, a novel method for the assessment of a multi-parameter dynamic resilience is introduced. The multi-parameter dynamic resilience envelops the hydropower and flood-protection resilience, as two opposing demands in the reservoir operation regime. A case study of a Pirot reservoir, in the Republic of Serbia, is used. To estimate the multi -parameter dynamic resilience of the Pirot reservoir system, a hydrological model, and a system dynamic simulation model with an inner control loop, is developed. The inner control loop provides the relation between the hydropower generation and flood-protection. The hydrological model is calibrated and generated climate inputs are used to simulate the long-term flow sequences. The most severe flood event period is extracted to be used as the input for the system dynamics simulations. The system performance for five different scenarios with various multi failure events (e.g., generator failure, segment gate failure on the spillway, leakage from reservoir and water supply tunnel failure due to earthquake) are presented using the novel concept of the explicit modeling of the component failures through element functionality indicators. Based on the outputs from the system dynamics model, system performance is determined and, later, hydropower and flood protection resilience. Then, multi-parameter dynamic resilience of the Pirot reservoir system is estimated and compared with the traditional static measures (reliability). Discrepancy between the drop between multi-parameter resilience (from 0.851 to 0.935) and reliability (from 0.993 to 1) shows that static measure underestimates the risk to the water system. Thus, the results from this research show that multi-parameter dynamic resilience, as an indicator, can provide additional insight compared to the traditional static measures, leading to identification of the vulnerable elements of a complex reservoir system. Additionally, it is shown that the proposed explicit modeling of system components failure can be used to reflect the drop of the overall system functionality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 116-124
Ana Petrovic ◽  
Sanja Manojlovic ◽  
Stanimir Kostadinov

The September torrential floods in 2014 in the Eastern Serbia were a real disaster for local residents in municipalities of Kladovo, Negotin and Majdanpek. Meteorological extreme event caused the hydrological extreme event which led to declaration of the emergency situation in all three municipalities. The combined method of Soil Conservation Service and synthetic unit triangular hydrograph (SCS-SUH) is employed to compute the maximal discharges in small watersheds of Dupljanska reka and Manastiricki potok, in order to assess the extremeness of September 2014 torrential flood events. Since the surface runoff is accompanied by intensive soil erosion on watershed slopes and the maximal discharges by sediment transport in river beds, estimation of mean annual sediment transport is also presented in this work. The September 2014 floods will remain historic given that they took 5 human lives and caused enormous material damage for local municipalities, so presented hydrological analysis should be taken as very important part of flood event documentation along with reports of municipalities’ emergency headquarters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 903 (1) ◽  
pp. 012006
Gianoora Achmad ◽  
Kemas Ridwan Kurniawan

Abstract Located in Tambora, West Jakarta, Kampung Pekojan has an essential role as a part of historical stories back to the colonialism era in Batavia, now known as Jakarta. As the residential area of Muslim for the Arabs, The Indian, and the indigenous people, Pekojan has six cultural heritage mosques, one of them is Langgar Tinggi. However, the yearly flood event eventually become a problem and it endangered Langgar Tinggi and its surrounding. Using descriptive qualitative methods by collecting data which includes literature studies, interviews with the experts, this paper is expected to provide the necessary information and data about how to handle a flood event around Kampung Pekojan and save Langgar Tinggi mosque as an important cultural heritage and a place that holds history.

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