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Ornis Fennica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (4) ◽  
pp. 182-141
Martin Beal ◽  
Patrik Byholm ◽  
Ulrik Lötberg ◽  
Tom J. Evans ◽  
Kozue Shiomi ◽  

Habitat preferences and foraging strategies affect population-level space use and are therefore crucial to understanding population change and implementing spatial conservation and management actions. We investigated the breeding season habitat preference and foraging site fidelity of the under-studied and threatened, Baltic Sea population of Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Using GPS devices, we tracked 20 adult individuals at two breeding colonies, in Sweden and Finland, from late incubation through chick-rearing. Analyzing foraging movements during this period, we describe trip characteristics for each colony, daily metrics of effort, habitat use, and foraging site fidelity. We found that daily time spent away from the colony increased throughout the season, with colony-level differences in terms of distance travelled per day. In general, terns selected shallow waters between 0–5 meters in depth with certain individuals using inland lakes for foraging. We show, for the first time, that individual Caspian Terns are faithful to foraging sites throughout the breeding season, and that individuals are highly repeatable in their strategies regarding foraging site fidelity. These results fill important knowledge gaps for this at-risk population, and extend our general knowledge of the breeding season foraging ecology of this widespread species.

2022 ◽  
Verónica González-Gambau ◽  
Estrella Olmedo ◽  
Antonio Turiel ◽  
Cristina González-Haro ◽  
Aina García-Espriu ◽  

Abstract. This paper presents the first Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) dedicated products over the Baltic Sea. The SSS retrieval from L-band brightess temperature (TB) measurements over this basin is really challenging due to important technical issues, such as the land-sea and ice-sea contamination, the high contamination by Radio-Frequency Interferences (RFI) sources, the low sensitivity of L-band TB at SSS changes in cold waters and the poor characterization of dielectric constant models for the low SSS and SST ranges in the basin. For these reasons, exploratory research in the algorithms used from the level 0 up to level 4 has been required to develop these dedicated products. This work has been performed in the framework of the European Space Agency regional initiative Baltic+ Salinity Dynamics. Two Baltic+ SSS products have been generated for the period 2011–2019 and are freely distributed: the Level 3 (L3) product (daily generated 9-day maps in a 0.25° grid, (González-Gambau et al., 2021a) and the Level 4 (L4) product (daily maps in a 0.05° grid, (González-Gambau et al., 2021b)), that are computed by applying multifractal fusion to L3 SSS with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) maps. The accuracy of L3 SSS products is typically around 0.7–0.8 psu. The L4 product has an improved spatio-temporal resolution with respect to the L3 and the accuracy is typically around 0.4 psu. Regions with the highest errors and limited coverage are located in Arkona and Bornholm basins and Gulfs of Finland and Riga. The impact assessment of Baltic+ SSS products has shown that they can help in the understanding of salinity dynamics in the basin. They complement the temporally and spatially very sparse in situ measurements, covering data gaps in the region and they can also be useful for the validation of numerical models, particularly in areas where in situ data are very sparse.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Juliane Hecht ◽  
Maria Borowiak ◽  
Bernhard Fortmeier ◽  
Salah Dikou ◽  
Wolfgang Gierer ◽  

Vibrio spp. are Gram-negative bacteria found in marine ecosystems. Non-cholera Vibrio spp. can cause gastrointestinal infections and can also lead to wound infections through exposure to contaminated seawater. Vibrio infections are increasingly documented from the Baltic Sea due to extended warm weather periods. We describe the first isolation of Vibrio fluvialis from a wound infection acquired by an impalement injury in the shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. The severe infection required amputation of the third toe. Whole genome sequencing of the isolate was performed and revealed a genome consisting of two circular chromosomes with a size of 1.57 and 3.24 Mb.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Janusz Marchwiński ◽  
Karolina Kurtz-Orecka

PurposeThe aim of the research is to determine the influence of photovoltaic (PV) installation and the share of façade glazing on the energy profile of nursery buildings in the Baltic Sea region, as well as defining the most favorable configuration in terms of energy efficiency.Design/methodology/approachThe article provides comparative calculations of energy performance indicators (Ep, Ed, Eu) and CO2 emissions (mCO2) made for the defined model of the nursery. It includes calculations concerning energy performance of the building, depending on its PV power (0–60 kWp), PV efficiency (100 and 85%) and façade glazing ratio (GR = 25%, 50% and 75%).FindingsThe results of the research indicate that an increase in the PV power exerts proportional impact on the reduction of the Ep and Ed indicators, as well as on the CO2 emissions. Only low GR values (25%) reduce the Eu indicator significantly. Decrease in high range of GR values (over 50%) does not provide proportional effects. In the variant: 60 kWp (100% efficiency) with GR = 25%, the biggest share (99.5%) of RES was obtained. This proves that the concept of energy independent nursery buildings is feasible and reasonable in the examined location.Practical implicationsDesigning buildings towards environmental neutrality requires laborious pre-design conceptual work before developing the right solutions. The set of results of the relationship between the variables of the building's envelope, energy performance indicators and the required involvement of active RES installations to achieve high energy performance of a building presented in the article is valuable. It allows for a preliminary decision of the direction of the design solutions selection in the design process of public utility buildings, such as nurseries. Thus, it may significantly shorten the pre-design analysis process for the location of the southern part of the Baltic Sea region.Originality/valueThe novelty of the paper relies on examining the dependences between PV power and façade glazing ratio in terms of their influence on energy profile of nursery buildings.

Rainer Froese ◽  
Eva Papaioannou ◽  
Marco Scotti

AbstractClimate change and deoxygenation are affecting fish stocks on a global scale, but disentangling the impacts of these stressors from the effects of overfishing is a challenge. This study was conducted to distinguish between climate change and mismanagement as possible causes for the drastic decline in spawning stock size and reproductive success in cod (Gadus morhua) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea, when compared with the good or satisfactory status and reproductive success of the other commercial species in the area. Available data on water temperature, wind speed, and plankton bloom during the spawning season did not reveal conclusive correlations between years with good and bad reproductive success of cod or herring. Notably, the other commercial species in the area have very similar life history traits suggesting similar resilience against stress caused by climate change or fishing. The study concludes that severe, sustained overfishing plus inappropriate size selectivity of the main fishing gears have caused the decline in spawning stock biomass of cod and herring to levels that are known to have a high probability of impaired reproductive success. It is pointed out that allowed catches were regulated by management and adhered to by the fishers, meaning that unregulated fishing did not occur. Thus, mismanagement (quotas that were too high and gears that selected too small sizes) and not climate change appears to be the primary cause of the bad status of cod and herring in the Western Baltic Sea.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 164
Irma Vybernaite-Lubiene ◽  
Mindaugas Zilius ◽  
Marco Bartoli ◽  
Jolita Petkuviene ◽  
Petras Zemlys ◽  

Estuaries are biogeochemical reactors able to modulate the transfer of energy and matter from the watershed to the coastal zones and to retain or remove large amounts of terrestrially generated nutrients. However, they may switch from nutrient sink to source depending upon interannual variability of the nutrient supply and internal processes driving whole system metabolism (e.g., net autotrophic or heterotrophic). We tested this hypothesis in the Curonian Lagoon, a hypertrophic estuary located in the south east Baltic Sea, following the budget approach developed in the Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) project. Annual budgets for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and silica (Si) were calculated for the 2013–2015 period. The lagoon was divided in a flushed, nutrient loaded area, and in a confined, less loaded area. The lagoon was always a sink for dissolved inorganic Si and P whereas it was a N sink in the confined area, dominated by denitrification, and a N source in the flushed area, due to dinitrogen (N2) fixation. The net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) indicated that the Curonian Lagoon was mainly autotrophic because of high primary production rates. In this turbid system, low N:P ratio, high summer temperatures, and calm weather conditions support high production of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, suppressing the estuarine N-sink role.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 436
Tomasz Studzieniecki ◽  
Tadeusz Palmowski ◽  
Remigiusz Joeck

Energy transition is a multi-dimensional process of developing sustainable economies by seeking renewable energy sources, saving energy, and improving energy efficiency. This process follows the rules of sustainable development. The article presents an analysis of energy transition in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) enjoying long-term and intensive territorial cooperation. The region embraces 11 countries diversified in terms of their economic development level and the use of renewable energy sources. The article strives to answer the question of whether territorial cooperation contributes to BSR energy transition, and if so, in what way. Another goal is to identify the transition drivers that arise from the Baltic Sea Region’s unique characteristics. The authors applied the system analysis methodology. The performed literature studies allowed the researchers to identify the attributes of energy transition. Empirical research relied on secondary sources, including the European Union (EU) statistics, The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR), and related documents. The key role in the conducted research can be attributed to the EU projects database (, which enabled identifying the 2016–2020 programmes and projects. The research identified 14 BSR territorial cooperation programmes and 1471 projects conducted under the programmes, including 137 energy transition-related projects. The project results were presented in quantitative and qualitative terms.

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