trna synthetase
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2022 ◽  
Jessica T. Stieglitz ◽  
Priyanka Lahiri ◽  
Matthew I. Stout ◽  
James A. Van Deventer

Archaeal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases (PylRSs) have been used to genetically encode over 200 distinct noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) in proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells. This vastly expands the range of chemical functionality accessible within proteins produced in these organisms. Despite these clear successes, explorations of PylRS function in yeast remains limited. In this work, we demonstrate that the Methanomethylophilus alvus PylRS (MaPylRS) and its cognate tRNACUA support the incorporation of ncAAs into proteins produced in S. cerevisiae using stop codon suppression methodologies. Additionally, we prepared three MaPylRS mutants originally engineered in E. coli and determined that all three were translationally active with one or more ncAAs, although with low efficiencies of ncAA incorporation in comparison to the parent MaPylRS. Alongside MaPylRS variants, we evaluated the translational activity of previously reported Methanosarcina mazei, Methanosarcina barkeri, and chimeric M. mazei and M. barkeri PylRSs. Using the yeast strain RJY100, and pairing these aaRSs with the M. barkeri tRNACUA, we did not observe any detectable stop codon suppression activity under the same conditions that produced moderately efficient ncAA incorporation with MaPylRS. The addition of MaPylRS to the orthogonal translation machinery toolkit in yeast potentially opens the door to hundreds of ncAAs that have not previously been genetically encodable using other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs. Extending the scope of ncAA incorporation in yeast could powerfully advance chemical and biological research for applications ranging from basic biological discovery to enzyme engineering and therapeutic protein lead discovery.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 342
Ihsan A. Shehadi ◽  
Mohamad T. T. Abdelrahman ◽  
Mohamed Abdelraof ◽  
Huda R. M. Rashdan

A new series of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles was synthesized by the reaction of methyl 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) hydrazine-1-carbodithioate (2) with selected derivatives of hydrazonoyl halide by grinding method at room temperature. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized derivatives were resolved from correct spectral and microanalytical data. Moreover, all synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities using Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. However, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The other prepared compounds exhibited either only antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria like compounds 4 and 6, or only antifungal activity like compound 7. A molecular docking study of the compounds was performed against two important microbial enzymes: tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS ) and N-myristoyl transferase (Nmt). The tested compounds showed variety in binding poses and interactions. However, compound 3 showed the best interactions in terms of number of hydrogen bonds, and the lowest affinity binding energy (–8.4 and –9.1 kcal/mol, respectively). From the in vitro and in silico studies, compound 3 is a good candidate for the next steps of the drug development process as an antimicrobial drug.

Timothy J. Hines ◽  
Cathleen Lutz ◽  
Stephen A. Murray ◽  
Robert W. Burgess

As sequencing technology improves, the identification of new disease-associated genes and new alleles of known genes is rapidly increasing our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of rare diseases, including neuromuscular diseases. However, precisely because these disorders are rare and often heterogeneous, they are difficult to study in patient populations. In parallel, our ability to engineer the genomes of model organisms, such as mice or rats, has gotten increasingly efficient through techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, allowing the creation of precision human disease models. Such in vivo model systems provide an efficient means for exploring disease mechanisms and identifying therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, animal models provide a platform for preclinical studies to test the efficacy of those strategies. Determining whether the same mechanisms are involved in the human disease and confirming relevant parameters for treatment ideally involves a human experimental system. One system currently being used is induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can then be differentiated into the relevant cell type(s) for in vitro confirmation of disease mechanisms and variables such as target engagement. Here we provide a demonstration of these approaches using the example of tRNA-synthetase-associated inherited peripheral neuropathies, rare forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Mouse models have led to a better understanding of both the genetic and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease. To determine if the mechanisms are similar in human cells, we will use genetically engineered iPSC-based models. This will allow comparisons of different CMT-associated GARS alleles in the same genetic background, reducing the variability found between patient samples and simplifying the availability of cell-based models for a rare disease. The necessity of integrating mouse and human models, strategies for accomplishing this integration, and the challenges of doing it at scale are discussed using recently published work detailing the cellular mechanisms underlying GARS-associated CMT as a framework.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Takahito Mukai ◽  
Kazuaki Amikura ◽  
Xian Fu ◽  
Dieter Söll ◽  
Ana Crnković

Universally present aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) stringently recognize their cognate tRNAs and acylate them with one of the proteinogenic amino acids. However, some organisms possess aaRSs that deviate from the accurate translation of the genetic code and exhibit relaxed specificity toward their tRNA and/or amino acid substrates. Typically, these aaRSs are part of an indirect pathway in which multiple enzymes participate in the formation of the correct aminoacyl-tRNA product. The indirect cysteine (Cys)-tRNA pathway, originally thought to be restricted to methanogenic archaea, uses the unique O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase (SepRS), which acylates the non-proteinogenic amino acid O-phosphoserine (Sep) onto tRNACys. Together with Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS) and the adapter protein SepCysE, SepRS forms a transsulfursome complex responsible for shuttling Sep-tRNACys to SepCysS for conversion of the tRNA-bound Sep to Cys. Here, we report a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the diversity of indirect Cys encoding systems. These systems are present in more diverse groups of bacteria and archaea than previously known. Given the occurrence and distribution of some genes consistently flanking SepRS, it is likely that this gene was part of an ancient operon that suffered a gradual loss of its original components. Newly identified bacterial SepRS sequences strengthen the suggestion that this lineage of enzymes may not rely on the m1G37 identity determinant in tRNA. Some bacterial SepRSs possess an N-terminal fusion resembling a threonyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain, which interestingly is frequently observed in the vicinity of archaeal SepCysS genes. We also found several highly degenerate SepRS genes that likely have altered amino acid specificity. Cross-analysis of selenocysteine (Sec)-utilizing traits confirmed the co-occurrence of SepCysE and the Sec-utilizing machinery in archaea, but also identified an unusual O-phosphoseryl-tRNASec kinase fusion with an archaeal Sec elongation factor in some lineages, where it may serve in place of SepCysE to prevent crosstalk between the two minor aminoacylation systems. These results shed new light on the variations in SepRS and SepCysS enzymes that may reflect adaptation to lifestyle and habitat, and provide new information on the evolution of the genetic code.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 107327482110515
Runzhi Huang ◽  
Mingxiao Li ◽  
Zhiwei Zeng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Dianwen Song ◽  

Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is a type of highly invasive cancer originated from melanocytes. It is reported that aberrant alternative splicing (AS) plays an important role in the neoplasia and metastasis of many types of cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether ASEs of pre-RNA have such an influence on the prognosis of SKCM and the related mechanism of ASEs in SKCM. The RNA-seq data and ASEs data for SKCM patients were obtained from the TCGA and TCGASpliceSeq database. The univariate Cox regression revealed 1265 overall survival-related splicing events (OS-SEs). Screened by Lasso regression, 4 OS-SEs were identified and used to construct an effective prediction model (AUC: .904), whose risk score was proved to be an independent prognostic factor. Furthermore, Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test showed that an aberrant splicing type of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) regulated by CDC-like kinase 1 (CLK1) was associated with the metastasis and stage of SKCM. Besides, the overlapped signal pathway for AIMP2 was galactose metabolism identified by the co-expression analysis. External database validation also confirmed that AIMP2, CLK1, and the galactose metabolism were associated with the metastasis and stage of SKCM patients. ChIP-seq and ATAC-seq methods further confirmed the transcription regulation of CLK1, AIMP2, and other key genes, whose cellular expression was detected by Single Cell Sequencing. In conclusion, we proposed that CLK1-regulated AIMP2-78704-ES might play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of SKCM via galactose metabolism. Besides, we established an effective model with MTMR14-63114-ES, URI1-48867-ES, BATF2-16724-AP, and MED22-88025-AP to predict the metastasis and prognosis of SKCM patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106741
Koichi Yamaguchi ◽  
Yasuhiro Fukushima ◽  
Aya Yamaguchi ◽  
Miki Itai ◽  
Yuki Shin ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 167453
Chia-Chuan Dean Cho ◽  
Lauren R. Blankenship ◽  
Xinyu Ma ◽  
Shiqing Xu ◽  
Wenshe Liu

2022 ◽  
Joseph A. Ayariga ◽  
Aarin M. Huffman ◽  
Audrey Napier ◽  
BK Robertson ◽  
Daniel Abugri

Dihydroquinine (DHQ), is a quinine-based compound with anti-malarial properties. However, little is known about its mechanism of action against T. gondii inhibition, which shares similar biology with Plasmodium spp. In order to explore DHQ activity as an inhibitor of T. gondii using in vitro assays, we first used an in silico approach to decipher its mechanisms of action based on previous knowledge about its disruption of nucleic acid and protein synthesis. An in silico study was performed on T. gondii parasite replication, transcriptional and translational machinery to decipher the binding potentials of DHQ to some top selected enzymes. We report for the first time, using an in silico analysis that showed that DHQ binds strongly to DNA gyrase, Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 1 (CDPK 1), and prolyl tRNA synthetase and thus could affect DNA replication, transcriptional and translational activities in T. gondii. Also, we found DHQ to effectively bind to mitochondria detoxifying enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidoxin, and Catalase (CAT)). In conclusion, DHQ could be a lead compound for the treatment of toxoplasmosis when successfully evaluated using in vitro and in vivo models to confirm its effectiveness and safety.

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