To our knowledge, there are no reports that demonstrate the use of host molecular markers for the purpose of detecting generic plant virus infection. Two approaches involving molecular indicators of virus infection in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were examined: the accumulation of small RNAs (sRNAs) using a microfluidics-based method (Bioanalyzer); and the transcript accumulation of virus-response related host plant genes, suppressor of gene silencing 3 (AtSGS3) and calcium-dependent protein kinase 3 (AtCPK3) by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The microfluidics approach using sRNA chips has previously demonstrated good linearity and good reproducibility, both within and between chips. Good limits of detection have been demonstrated from two-fold 10-point serial dilution regression to 0.1 ng of RNA. The ratio of small RNA (sRNA) to ribosomal RNA (rRNA), as a proportion of averaged mock-inoculation, correlated with known virus infection to a high degree of certainty. AtSGS3 transcript decreased between 14- and 28-days post inoculation (dpi) for all viruses investigated, while AtCPK3 transcript increased between 14 and 28 dpi for all viruses. A combination of these two molecular approaches may be useful for assessment of virus-infection of samples without the need for diagnosis of specific virus infection.
Canola is an important temperate oil crop that can be severely affected by drought. Understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in canola tolerance to water deficit is essential to obtain drought-tolerant productive cultivars. To investigate the role of antioxidant response and the possible involvement of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in canola tolerance to drought, we analyzed four genotypes with different sensitivity to water stress. Leaf relative water content, canopy temperature, PSII efficiency, electrolyte leakage index and lipid peroxidation were used as indicators to classify the cultivars as drought-tolerant or drought-sensitive. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase displayed significantly higher activities in drought-tolerant than in drought-sensitive cultivars subjected to water deficit, suggesting that the efficiency of the antioxidant response is essential in canola drought tolerance. The increased expression of genes BnaCDPK6 and BnaCDPK14 under drought conditions, their differential expression in drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive genotypes, and the presence of multiple cis-acting stress-related elements in their promoter regions suggest that CDPKs are part of the signaling pathways that regulate drought response in canola. We propose the BnaCDPK genes and their regulator elements as potential molecular targets to obtain drought-tolerant productive canola cultivars through breeding or genetic transformation.
Poplar is an illustrious industrial woody plant with rapid growth, providing a range of materials, and having simple post-treatment. Various kinds of environmental stresses limit its output. Plant annexin (ANN) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein involved in plant metabolism, growth and development, and cooperatively regulating drought resistance, salt tolerance, and various stress responses. However, the features of the PtANN gene family and different stress responses remain unknown in poplar. This study identified 12 PtANN genes in the P. trichocarpa whole-genome and PtANNs divided into three subfamilies based on the phylogenetic tree. The PtANNs clustered into the same clade shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The 12 PtANN genes were located in ten chromosomes, and segmental duplication events were illustrated as the main duplication method. Additionally, the PtANN4 homogenous with AtANN1 was detected localized in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. In addition, expression levels of PtANNs were induced by multiple abiotic stresses, which indicated that PtANNs could widely participate in response to abiotic stress. These results revealed the molecular evolution of PtANNs and their profiles in response to abiotic stress.
AbstractThe danger signal extracellular calcium is pathophysiologically increased in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Calcium activates the NLRP3-inflammasome via the calcium-sensing receptor in monocytes/macrophages primed by lipopolysaccharide, and this effect is mediated by the uptake of calciprotein particles (CPPs) formed out of calcium, phosphate, and fetuin-A. Aim of the study was to unravel the influence of calcium on monocytes when the priming signal is not present. Monocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy controls and RA patients. Macrophages were characterized using scRNA-seq, DNA microarray, and proteomics. Imaging flow cytometry was utilized to study intracellular events. Here we show that extracellular calcium and CPPs lead to the differentiation of monocytes into calcium-macrophages when the priming signal is absent. Additional growth factors are not needed, and differentiation is triggered by calcium-dependent CPP-uptake, lysosomal alkalization due to CPP overload, and TFEB- and STAT3-dependent increased transcription of the lysosomal gene network. Calcium-macrophages have a needle-like shape, are characterized by excessive, constitutive SPP1/osteopontin production and a strong pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Calcium-macrophages differentiated out of RA monocytes show a stronger manifestation of this phenotype, suggesting the differentiation process might lead to the pro-inflammatory macrophage response seen in the RA synovial membrane.
Dihydroquinine (DHQ), is a quinine-based compound with anti-malarial properties. However, little is known about its mechanism of action against T. gondii inhibition, which shares similar biology with Plasmodium spp. In order to explore DHQ activity as an inhibitor of T. gondii using in vitro assays, we first used an in silico approach to decipher its mechanisms of action based on previous knowledge about its disruption of nucleic acid and protein synthesis. An in silico study was performed on T. gondii parasite replication, transcriptional and translational machinery to decipher the binding potentials of DHQ to some top selected enzymes. We report for the first time, using an in silico analysis that showed that DHQ binds strongly to DNA gyrase, Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 1 (CDPK 1), and prolyl tRNA synthetase and thus could affect DNA replication, transcriptional and translational activities in T. gondii. Also, we found DHQ to effectively bind to mitochondria detoxifying enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidoxin, and Catalase (CAT)). In conclusion, DHQ could be a lead compound for the treatment of toxoplasmosis when successfully evaluated using in vitro and in vivo models to confirm its effectiveness and safety.