cutaneous melanoma
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2022 ◽  
Yujian Xu ◽  
Youbai Chen ◽  
Zehao Niu ◽  
Zheng Yang ◽  
Jiahua Xing ◽  

Abstract Ferroptosis-related lncRNAs are promising biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of many cancers. However, a ferroptosis-related signature to predict the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has not been identified. The purpose of our study was to construct a ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature to predict prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy in CM. Ferroptosis-related differentially expressed genes (FDEGs) and lncRNAs (FDELs) were identified using TCGA, GTEx, and FerrDb datasets. We performed Cox and LASSO regressions to identify key FDELs, and constructed a risk score to stratify patients into high- and low-risk groups. A nomogram was developed for clinical use. We performed gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) to identify significantly enriched pathways. Differences in the tumor microenvironment (TME) between the 2 groups were assessed using 7 algorithms. To predict the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), we analyzed the association between PD1 and CTLA4 expression and the risk score. Finally, differences in Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) and molecular drugs Sensitivity between the 2 groups were performed. Here, we identified 5 lncRNAs (AATBC, AC145423.2, LINC01871, AC125807.2, and AC245041.1) to construct the risk score. The AUC of the lncRNA signature was 0.743 in the training cohort and was validated in the testing and entire cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the high-risk group had poorer prognosis. Multivariate Cox regression showed that the lncRNA signature was an independent predictor of OS with higher accuracy than traditional clinicopathological features. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival probabilities for CM patients were 92.7%, 57.2%, and 40.2% with an AUC of 0.804, indicating a good accuracy and reliability of the nomogram. GSEA showed that the high-risk group had lower ferroptosis and immune response. TME analyses confirmed that the high-risk group had lower immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD8+ T cells, CD4+ memory-activated T cells, and M1 macrophages) and lower immune functions (e.g., immune checkpoint activation). Low-risk patients whose disease expressed PD1 or CTLA4 were likely to respond better to ICIs. The analysis demonstrated that the TMB had significantly difference between low- and high- risk groups. Chemotherapy drugs, such as sorafenib, Imatinib, ABT.888 (Veliparib), Docetaxel, and Paclitaxel showed Significant differences in the estimated IC50 between the two risk groups. Overall, our novel ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature was able to accurately predict the prognosis and ICI outcomes of CM patients. These ferroptosis-related lncRNAs might be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Cao-Jie Chen ◽  
Hiroki Kajita ◽  
Noriko Aramaki-Hattori ◽  
Shigeki Sakai ◽  
Kazuo Kishi

Cutaneous melanoma refers to a common skin tumor that is dangerous to health with a great risk of metastasis. Previous researches reported that autophagy is associated with the progression of cutaneous melanoma. Nevertheless, the role played by genes with a relation to autophagy (ARG) in the prediction of the course of metastatic cutaneous melanoma is still largely unknown. We observed that thirteen ARGs showed relations to overall survival (OS) in the Cox regression investigation based on a single variate. We developed 2-gene signature, which stratified metastatic cutaneous melanoma cases to groups at great and small risks. Cases suffering from metastatic cutaneous melanoma in the group at great risks had power OS compared with cases at small risks. The risk score, T phase, N phase, and age were proved to be individual factors in terms of the prediction of OS. Besides, the risk scores identified by the two ARGs were significantly correlated with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated accurate predicting performance exhibited by the 2-gene signature. We also found that the immunization and stromal scores achieved by the group based on large risks were higher compared with those achieved by the group based on small risks. The metastatic cutaneous melanoma cases achieving the score based on small risks acquired greater expression of immune checkpoint molecules as compared with the high-risk group. In conclusion, the 2-ARG gene signature indicated a novel prognostic indicator for prognosis prediction of metastatic cutaneous melanoma, which served as an important tool for guiding the clinical treatment of cutaneous melanoma.

2022 ◽  
Jianmin Ren ◽  
Jinglu Yu ◽  
Yang Shi ◽  
Inam Ullah Khan ◽  
Jiansheng Huang

Abstract Background: The relationship between the pseudogene and tumor immune microenvironment in cutaneous melanoma is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the role of the pseudogene HLA-DRB6 and its effect on the tumor immune microenvironment in skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) using bioinformatics tools. Method: The GEPIA database was used to analyze the expression of HLA-DRB6 and CXCL10 mRNA in tumor tissues. The TIMER database was used to analyze the relationship between mRNA levels and the infiltration of immune cells. The enrichment of HLA-DRB6 and CXCL10 in melanoma tissues was analyzed by single cell portal. The binding sites of HLA-DRB6 with its target genes was predicted via starBase database. The gene expression profiling and clinical data from GEO database (GSE94873) was used to verify the potential of CXCL10 as a biomarker. Result: The expression of HLA-DRB6 in SKCM tumor is higher than in normal tissues, and patients with high HLA-DRB6 expression had a better prognosis (P<0.05). Furthermore, HLA-DRB6 is positively correlated with the infiltration of immune cells such as B cells, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and the expression of immune checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Single cell transcriptome sequencing data showed that HLA-DRB6 is mainly enriched in macrophages and had the highest correlation with CXCL10 than other chemokines (cor=0.66, P<0.0001). In addition, we found that CXCL10 can be used as a potential biomarker for predicting responsiveness and survival rate in SKCM patients who treated with Tremelimumab (a human anti-CTLA-4 antibody). Conclusion: In the microenvironment of SKCM, HLA-DRB6 is mainly enriched in macrophages and regulates the expression of CXCL10 through the ceRNA mechanism. Furthermore, the CXCL10 in peripheral blood can be used as a biomarker to predict the responsiveness and the prognosis for patients treated with tremelimumab.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 271
Francesca Comito ◽  
Rachele Pagani ◽  
Giada Grilli ◽  
Francesca Sperandi ◽  
Andrea Ardizzoni ◽  

The prognosis of patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma has radically changed in the past decade. Nevertheless, primary or acquired resistance to systemic treatment occurs in many cases, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. This review has the purpose of summarizing the current area of interest for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable advanced cutaneous melanoma, including data from recently completed or ongoing clinical trials. The main fields of investigation include the identification of new immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-LAG3, GITR agonist and anti-TIGIT), adoptive cell therapy, vaccines, engineered TCR therapy, IL-2 agonists, novel targets for targeted therapy (new MEK or RAF inhibitors, HDAC, IDO, ERK, Axl, ATR and PARP inhibitors), or combination strategies (antiangiogenetic agents plus immune checkpoint inhibitors, intra-tumoral immunotherapy in combination with systemic therapy). In many cases, only preliminary efficacy data from early phase trials are available, which require confirmation in larger patient cohorts. A more in-depth knowledge of the biological effects of the molecules and identifying predictive biomarkers remain crucial for selecting patient populations most likely to benefit from novel emerging treatment strategies.

Liang Ding ◽  
Alexandra Gosh ◽  
Delphine J. Lee ◽  
Gabriella Emri ◽  
Wendy J. Huss ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 107327482110515
Runzhi Huang ◽  
Mingxiao Li ◽  
Zhiwei Zeng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Dianwen Song ◽  

Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is a type of highly invasive cancer originated from melanocytes. It is reported that aberrant alternative splicing (AS) plays an important role in the neoplasia and metastasis of many types of cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether ASEs of pre-RNA have such an influence on the prognosis of SKCM and the related mechanism of ASEs in SKCM. The RNA-seq data and ASEs data for SKCM patients were obtained from the TCGA and TCGASpliceSeq database. The univariate Cox regression revealed 1265 overall survival-related splicing events (OS-SEs). Screened by Lasso regression, 4 OS-SEs were identified and used to construct an effective prediction model (AUC: .904), whose risk score was proved to be an independent prognostic factor. Furthermore, Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test showed that an aberrant splicing type of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) regulated by CDC-like kinase 1 (CLK1) was associated with the metastasis and stage of SKCM. Besides, the overlapped signal pathway for AIMP2 was galactose metabolism identified by the co-expression analysis. External database validation also confirmed that AIMP2, CLK1, and the galactose metabolism were associated with the metastasis and stage of SKCM patients. ChIP-seq and ATAC-seq methods further confirmed the transcription regulation of CLK1, AIMP2, and other key genes, whose cellular expression was detected by Single Cell Sequencing. In conclusion, we proposed that CLK1-regulated AIMP2-78704-ES might play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of SKCM via galactose metabolism. Besides, we established an effective model with MTMR14-63114-ES, URI1-48867-ES, BATF2-16724-AP, and MED22-88025-AP to predict the metastasis and prognosis of SKCM patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 101253
Hao Pang ◽  
Yongting Zhou ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  
Hao Wu ◽  
Chenyang Cui ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1S) ◽  
pp. 2-2
Emma Rousi ◽  
Ilkka O. Koskivuo ◽  
Susanna Juteau ◽  
Lauri Talve ◽  
Veli-Matti Kähäri.

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