It has been demonstrated that propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), and flavoring chemicals can thermally degrade to form carbonyls during vaping, but less is known about carbonyl emissions produced by transformation of flavoring chemicals and the interactive effects among e-liquid constituents. This study characterized carbonyl composition and levels in vaping emissions of PG-VG (e-liquid base solvents) and four e-liquid formulations flavored with trans-2-hexenol, benzyl alcohol, l-(-)-menthol, or linalool. Utilizing gas chromatography (GC)- and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods, 14 carbonyls were identified and quantified. PG-VG emitted highest levels of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein. However, flavored e-liquids contributed to the production of a wider variety of carbonyls, with some carbonyls directly corresponding to the oxidation of alcohol moieties in flavoring compounds (e.g., trans-2-hexenol and benzyl alcohol transformed into trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde, respectively). Detections of formaldehyde-GSH and trans-2-hexenal-GSH adducts signify interactions of carbonyls with biological nucleophiles. The global reactivity descriptors (I, A, μ, η, and ω) and condensed Fukui parameters (fk0, fk−, fk+, and dual-descriptor) were computed to elucidate site reactivities of selected simple and α,β-unsaturated carbonyls found in vaping emissions. Overall, this study highlights carbonyl emissions and reactivities and their potential health risk effects associated with vaping.
A major challenge in chemical synthesis is to develop catalytic systems that convert simple molecules to complex high-value products. Often these valuable compounds must be manufactured asymmetrically, as their biochemical properties can differ based on the chirality of the molecule. Of great interest are enantioenriched amine diastereomers, which are prevalent in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals,1 yet their preparation often relies on low-efficiency multi-step synthesis.2 Herein, we report the discovery and characterisation of a multi-functional biocatalyst, which operates using a previously unreported conjugate reduction-reductive amination mechanism. This enzyme (pIR-120), identified within a metagenomic imine reductase (IRED) collection3 and originating from an unclassified Pseudomonas species, possesses an unusual active site architecture that facilitates an amine-activated conjugate alkene reduction followed by reductive amination. This enzyme enables the coupling of a broad selection of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls with amines for the efficient preparation of enantioenriched amine diastereomers. Moreover, employing a racemic substrate partner or conjugated dienyl-ketone provides a means of controlling additional stereocentres using the single catalyst. Mechanistic and structural studies have been carried out to delineate the order of individual steps catalysed by pIR-120 which have led to a proposal for the overall catalytic cycle. This work shows that the IRED family can serve as a platform for facilitating the discovery of further enzymatic activities for application in synthetic biology and organic synthesis.
Abstract. Carbonyls are among the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. They are central to atmospheric photochemistry as absorption of near-UV radiation by the C=O chromophore can lead to photolysis. If photolysis does not occur on electronic excited states, non-radiative relaxation to the ground state will form carbonyls with extremely high internal energy. These “hot” molecules can access a range of ground state reactions. Up to nine potential ground state reactions are investigated at the B2GP-PLYP-D3/def2-TZVP level of theory for a dataset of 20 representative carbonyls. Almost all are energetically accessible under tropospheric conditions. Comparison with experiment suggests the most significant ground state dissociation pathways will be concerted triple fragmentation in saturated aldehydes, Norrish type III dissociation to form another carbonyl, and H2-loss involving the formyl H atom in aldehydes. Tautomerisation, leading to more reactive unsaturated species, is also predicted to be energetically accessible and is likely to be important when there is no low-energy ground state dissociation pathway, for example in α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and some ketones. The concerted triple fragmentation and H2-loss pathways have immediate atmospheric implication to global H2 production and tautomerisaton has implication to the atmospheric production of organic acids.
α,β-unsaturated carbonyls interfere with numerous plant physiological processes. One mechanism of action is their reactivity toward thiols of metabolites like cysteine and glutathione (GSH). This work aimed at better understanding these interactions. Both 12-oxophytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and abscisic acid (ABA) conjugated with cysteine. It was found that the reactivity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls with GSH followed the sequence trans-2-hexenal < 12-OPDA ≈ 12-OPDA-ethylester < 2-cyclopentenone << methyl vinylketone (MVK). Interestingly, GSH, but not ascorbate (vitamin C), supplementation ameliorated the phytotoxic potential of MVK. In addition, 12-OPDA and 12-OPDA-related conjugated carbonyl compounds interacted with proteins, e.g., with members of the thioredoxin (TRX)-fold family. 12-OPDA modified two cysteinyl residues of chloroplast TRX-f1. The OPDAylated TRX-f1 lost its activity to activate the Calvin–Benson-cycle enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). Finally, we show that 12-OPDA interacts with cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3) non-covalently and affects its peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase activity. The results demonstrate the high potential of 12-OPDA as a diverse interactor and cellular regulator and suggest that OPDAylation may occur in plant cells and should be investigated as novel regulatory mechanism.
Tetrahydroxydiboron/water effectively reduce a series of unsaturated carbonyls, quinones, and pyridinium salts to the corresponding saturated carbonyls, dihydroxybenzenes, and hydropyridines in moderate to high yields.