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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shuang Geng ◽  
Nicola Molinaro ◽  
Polina Timofeeva ◽  
Ileana Quiñones ◽  
Manuel Carreiras ◽  

AbstractWords representing objects (nouns) and words representing actions (verbs) are essential components of speech across languages. While there is evidence regarding the organizational principles governing neural representation of nouns and verbs in monolingual speakers, little is known about how this knowledge is represented in the bilingual brain. To address this gap, we recorded neuromagnetic signals while highly proficient Spanish–Basque bilinguals performed a picture-naming task and tracked the brain oscillatory dynamics underlying this process. We found theta (4–8 Hz) power increases and alpha–beta (8–25 Hz) power decreases irrespectively of the category and language at use in a time window classically associated to the controlled retrieval of lexico-semantic information. When comparing nouns and verbs within each language, we found theta power increases for verbs as compared to nouns in bilateral visual cortices and cognitive control areas including the left SMA and right middle temporal gyrus. In addition, stronger alpha–beta power decreases were observed for nouns as compared to verbs in visual cortices and semantic-related regions such as the left anterior temporal lobe and right premotor cortex. No differences were observed between categories across languages. Overall, our results suggest that noun and verb processing recruit partially different networks during speech production but that these category-based representations are similarly processed in the bilingual brain.

2022 ◽  
Tobias Andermann ◽  
Alexandre Antonelli ◽  
Russell Barrett ◽  
Daniele Silvestro

The reliable mapping of species richness is a crucial step for the identification of areas of high conservation priority, alongside other value considerations. This is commonly done by overlapping range maps of individual species, which requires dense availability of occurrence data or relies on assumptions about the presence of species in unsampled areas deemed suitable by environmental niche models. Here we present a deep learning approach that directly estimates species richness, skipping the step of estimating individual species ranges. We train a neural network model based on species lists from inventory plots, which provide ground truthing for supervised machine learning. The model learns to predict species richness based on spatially associated variables, including climatic and geographic predictors, as well as counts of available species records from online databases. We assess the empirical utility of our approach by producing independently verifiable maps of alpha, beta, and gamma plant diversity at high spatial resolutions for Australia, a continent with highly contrasting diversity patterns. Our deep learning framework provides a powerful and flexible new approach for estimating biodiversity patterns.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Nicolò Musso ◽  
Paolo Giuseppe Bonacci ◽  
Dafne Bongiorno ◽  
Stefano Stracquadanio ◽  
Dalida Angela Bivona ◽  

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus has assumed considerable importance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Its mutation rate is high, involving the spike (S) gene and thus there has been a rapid spread of new variants. Herein, we describe a rapid, easy, adaptable, and affordable workflow to uniquely identify all currently known variants through as few analyses. Our method only requires two conventional PCRs of the S gene and two Sanger sequencing reactions, and possibly another PCR/sequencing assay on a N gene portion to identify the B.1.160 lineage. Methods: We selected an S gene 1312 bp portion containing a set of SNPs useful for discriminating all variants. Mathematical, statistical, and bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that our choice allowed us to identify all variants even without looking for all related mutations, as some of them are shared by different variants (e.g., N501Y is found in the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants) whereas others, that are more informative, are unique (e.g., A57 distinctive to the Alpha variant). Results: A “weight” could be assigned to each mutation that may be present in the selected portion of the S gene. The method’s robustness was confirmed by analyzing 80 SARS-CoV-2-positive samples. Conclusions: Our workflow identified the variants without the need for whole-genome sequencing and with greater reliability than with commercial kits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Imran Khan Niazi ◽  
Muhammad Samran Navid ◽  
Jim Bartley ◽  
Daniel Shepherd ◽  
Mangor Pedersen ◽  

AbstractAirflow through the left-and-right nostrils is said to be entrained by an endogenous nasal cycle paced by both poles of the hypothalamus. Yogic practices suggest, and scientific evidence demonstrates, that right-nostril breathing is involved with relatively higher sympathetic activity (arousal states), while left-nostril breathing is associated with a relatively more parasympathetic activity (stress alleviating state). The objective of this study was to further explore this laterality by controlling nasal airflow and observing patterns of cortical activity through encephalographic (EEG) recordings. Thirty subjects participated in this crossover study. The experimental session consisted of a resting phase (baseline), then a period of unilateral nostril breathing (UNB) using the dominant nasal airway, followed by UNB using the non-dominant nasal airway. A 64-channel EEG was recorded throughout the whole session. The effects of nostril-dominance, and nostril-lateralization were assessed using the power spectral density of the neural activity. The differences in power-spectra and source localization were calculated between EEG recorded during UNB and baseline for delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Cluster-based permutation tests showed that compared to baseline, EEG spectral power was significantly (1) decreased in all frequency bands for non-dominant nostril UNB, (2) decreased in alpha, beta and gamma bands for dominant nostril UNB, (3) decreased in all bands for left nostril UNB, and (4) decreased in all bands except delta for right nostril UNB. The beta band showed the most widely distributed changes across the scalp. our source localisation results show that breathing with the dominant nostril breathing increases EEG power in the left inferior frontal (alpha band) and left parietal lobule (beta band), whereas non-dominant nostril breathing is related to more diffuse and bilateral effects in posterior areas of the brain.These preliminary findings may stimulate further research in the area, with potential applications to tailored treatment of brain disorders associated with disruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.

Stefania Dispinseri ◽  
Ilaria Marzinotto ◽  
Cristina Brigatti ◽  
Maria Franca Pirillo ◽  
Monica Tolazzi ◽  

AbstractSARS-CoV-2 vaccination is known to induce antibodies that recognize also variants of concerns (VoCs) of the virus. However, epidemiological and laboratory evidences indicate that these antibodies have a reduced neutralization ability against VoCs. We studied binding and neutralizing antibodies against the Spike protein domains and subunits of the Wuhan-Hu-1 virus and its alpha, beta, delta VoCs and of seasonal betacoronaviruses (HKU1 and OC43) in a cohort of 31 health care workers prospectively followed post-vaccination with BNT162b2-Comirnaty. The study of sequential samples collected up to 64 days post-vaccination showed that serological assays measuring IgG against Wuhan-Hu-1 antigens were a poor proxy for VoC neutralization. In addition, in subjects who had asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 prior to vaccination, the loss of nAbs following disease could be rapid and accompanied by post-vaccination antibody levels similar to those of naïve vaccinees. Interestingly, in health care workers naïve for SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination induced a rapid and transient reactivation of pre-existing seasonal coronaviruses IgG responses that was associated with a subsequent reduced ability to neutralize alpha and beta VoCs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
Li-Chun Liang ◽  
Li-Fei Zheng ◽  
Aying Wan

AbstractLet $\Gamma (x)$ Γ ( x ) denote the classical Euler gamma function. We set $\psi _{n}(x)=(-1)^{n-1}\psi ^{(n)}(x)$ ψ n ( x ) = ( − 1 ) n − 1 ψ ( n ) ( x ) ($n\in \mathbb{N}$ n ∈ N ), where $\psi ^{(n)}(x)$ ψ ( n ) ( x ) denotes the nth derivative of the psi function $\psi (x)=\Gamma '(x)/\Gamma (x)$ ψ ( x ) = Γ ′ ( x ) / Γ ( x ) . For λ, α, $\beta \in \mathbb{R}$ β ∈ R and $m,n\in \mathbb{N}$ m , n ∈ N , we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the functions $$ L(x;\lambda ,\alpha ,\beta )=\psi _{m+n}(x)-\lambda \psi _{m}(x+ \alpha ) \psi _{n}(x+\beta ) $$ L ( x ; λ , α , β ) = ψ m + n ( x ) − λ ψ m ( x + α ) ψ n ( x + β ) and $-L(x;\lambda ,\alpha ,\beta )$ − L ( x ; λ , α , β ) to be completely monotonic on $(-\min (\alpha ,\beta ,0),\infty )$ ( − min ( α , β , 0 ) , ∞ ) .As a result, we generalize and refine some inequalities involving the polygamma functions and also give some inequalities in terms of the ratio of gamma functions.

Tuomas Orponen

AbstractLet $$A,B \subset \mathbb {R}$$ A , B ⊂ R be closed Ahlfors-regular sets with dimensions $$\dim _{\mathrm {H}}A =: \alpha $$ dim H A = : α and $$\dim _{\mathrm {H}}B =: \beta $$ dim H B = : β . I prove that $$\begin{aligned} \dim _{\mathrm {H}}[A + \theta B] \ge \alpha + \beta \cdot \tfrac{1 - \alpha }{2 - \alpha } \end{aligned}$$ dim H [ A + θ B ] ≥ α + β · 1 - α 2 - α for all $$\theta \in \mathbb {R}{\setminus } E$$ θ ∈ R \ E , where $$\dim _{\mathrm {H}}E = 0$$ dim H E = 0 .

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 541
Priya Kulkarni ◽  
Abhay Harsulkar ◽  
Anne-Grete Märtson ◽  
Siim Suutre ◽  
Aare Märtson ◽  

Introduction: Osteophytes are a prominent feature of osteoarthritis (OA) joints and one of the clinical hallmarks of the disease progression. Research on osteophytes is fragmentary and modes of its contribution to OA pathology are obscure. Aim: To elucidate the role of osteophytes in OA pathology from a perspective of molecular and cellular events. Methods: RNA-seq of fully grown osteophytes, collected from tibial plateau of six OA patients revealed patterns corresponding to active extracellular matrix re-modulation and prominent participation of mast cells. Presence of mast cells was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, performed on the sections of the osteophytes using anti-tryptase alpha/beta-1 and anti-FC epsilon RI antibodies and the related key up-regulated genes were validated by qRT-PCR. To test the role of OA synovial fluid (SF) in mast cell maturation as proposed by the authors, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and ThP1 cells were cultured in a media supplemented with 10% SF samples, obtained from various grades of OA patients and were monitored using specific cell surface markers by flow cytometry. Proteomics analysis of SF samples was performed to detect additional markers specific to mast cells and inflammation that drive the cell differentiation and maturation. Results: Transcriptomics of osteophytes revealed a significant upregulation of mast cells specific genes such as chymase 1 (CMA1; 5-fold) carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3; 4-fold), MS4A2/FCERI (FCERI; 4.2-fold) and interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1; 2.5-fold) indicating their prominent involvement. (In IHC, anti-tryptase alpha/beta-1 and anti- FC epsilon RI-stained active mast cells were seen populated in cartilage, subchondral bone, and trabecular bone.) Based on these outcomes and previous learnings, the authors claim a possibility of mast cells invasion into osteophytes is mediated by SF and present in vitro cell differentiation assay results, wherein ThP1 and HSCs showed differentiation into HLA-DR+/CD206+ and FCERI+ phenotype, respectively, after exposing them to medium containing 10% SF for 9 days. Proteomics analysis of these SF samples showed an accumulation of mast cell-specific inflammatory proteins. Conclusions: RNA-seq analysis followed by IHC study on osteophyte samples showed a population of mast cells resident in them and may further accentuate inflammatory pathology of OA. Besides subchondral bone, the authors propose an alternative passage of mast cells invasion in osteophytes, wherein OA SF was found to be necessary and sufficient for maturation of mast cell precursor into effector cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Bipan Hazarika ◽  
Anupam Das ◽  
Emrah Evren Kara ◽  
Feyzi Basar

The aim of the paper is introduced the composition of the two infinite matrices $\Lambda=(\lambda_{nk})$ and $\widehat{F}=\left( f_{nk} \right).$ Further, we determine the $\alpha$-, $\beta$-, $\gamma$-duals of new spaces and also construct the basis for the space $\ell_{p}^{\lambda}(\widehat{F}).$ Additionally, we characterize some matrix classes on the spaces $\ell_{\infty}^{\lambda}(\widehat{F})$ and $\ell_{p}^{\lambda}(\widehat{F}).$ We also investigate some geometric properties concerning Banach-Saks type $p.$Finally we characterize the subclasses $\mathcal{K}(X:Y)$ of compact operators by applying the Hausdorff measure of noncompactness, where $X\in\{\ell_{\infty}^{\lambda}(\widehat{F}),\ell_{p}^{\lambda}(\widehat{F})\}$ and $Y\in\{c_{0},c, \ell_{\infty}, \ell_{1}, bv\},$ and $1\leq p<\infty.$

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