physiological processes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Amadou Sidibé ◽  
Marie Thérèse Charles ◽  
Jean-François Lucier ◽  
Yanqun Xu ◽  
Carole Beaulieu

Preharvest application of hormetic doses of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) generates beneficial effects in plants. In this study, within 1 week, four UV-C treatments of 0.4 kJ/m2 were applied to 3-week-old lettuce seedlings. The leaves were inoculated with a virulent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) 48 h after the last UV-C application. The extent of the disease was tracked over time and a transcriptomic analysis was performed on lettuce leaf samples. Samples of lettuce leaves, from both control and treated groups, were taken at two different times corresponding to T2, 48 h after the last UV-C treatment and T3, 24 h after inoculation (i.e., 72 h after the last UV-C treatment). A significant decrease in disease severity between the UV-C treated lettuce and the control was observed on days 4, 8, and 14 after pathogen inoculation. Data from the transcriptomic study revealed, that in response to the effect of UV-C alone and/or UV-C + Xcv, a total of 3828 genes were differentially regulated with fold change (|log2-FC|) > 1.5 and false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Among these, of the 2270 genes of known function 1556 were upregulated and 714 were downregulated. A total of 10 candidate genes were verified by qPCR and were generally consistent with the transcriptomic results. The differentially expressed genes observed in lettuce under the conditions of the present study were associated with 14 different biological processes in the plant. These genes are involved in a series of metabolic pathways associated with the ability of lettuce treated with hormetic doses of UV-C to resume normal growth and to defend themselves against potential stressors. The results indicate that the hormetic dose of UV-C applied preharvest on lettuce in this study, can be considered as an eustress that does not interfere with the ability of the treated plants to carry on a set of key physiological processes namely: homeostasis, growth and defense.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuntao Xiao ◽  
Li Chu ◽  
Yumeng Zhang ◽  
Yeting Bian ◽  
Jiahui Xiao ◽  

ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), a bZIP-type transcription factor, acts as a master regulator that regulates various physiological and biological processes in plants such as photomorphogenesis, root growth, flavonoid biosynthesis and accumulation, nutrient acquisition, and response to abiotic stresses. HY5 is evolutionally conserved in function among various plant species. HY5 acts as a master regulator of light-mediated transcriptional regulatory hub that directly or indirectly controls the transcription of approximately one-third of genes at the whole genome level. The transcription, protein abundance, and activity of HY5 are tightly modulated by a variety of factors through distinct regulatory mechanisms. This review primarily summarizes recent advances on HY5-mediated molecular and physiological processes and regulatory mechanisms on HY5 in the model plant Arabidopsis as well as in crops.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 929
Alessandra Antonucci ◽  
Antonella Marucci ◽  
Vincenzo Trischitta ◽  
Rosa Di Paola

O-linked glycosylation, the greatest form of post-translational modifications, plays a key role in regulating the majority of physiological processes. It is, therefore, not surprising that abnormal O-linked glycosylation has been related to several human diseases. Recently, GALNT2, which encodes the GalNAc-transferase 2 involved in the first step of O-linked glycosylation, has attracted great attention as a possible player in many highly prevalent human metabolic diseases, including atherogenic dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and obesity, all clustered on the common ground of insulin resistance. Data available both in human and animal models point to GALNT2 as a molecule that shapes the risk of the aforementioned abnormalities affecting diverse protein functions, which eventually cause clinically distinct phenotypes (a typical example of pleiotropism). Pathways linking GALNT2 to dyslipidemia and insulin resistance have been partly identified, while those for type 2 diabetes and obesity are yet to be understood. Here, we will provide a brief overview on the present knowledge on GALNT2 function and dysfunction and propose novel insights on the complex pathogenesis of the aforementioned metabolic diseases, which all impose a heavy burden for patients, their families and the entire society.

Vision ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Feipeng Wu ◽  
Yin Zhao ◽  
Hong Zhang

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) confers neural control of the entire body, mainly through the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Several studies have observed that the physiological functions of the eye (pupil size, lens accommodation, ocular circulation, and intraocular pressure regulation) are precisely regulated by the ANS. Almost all parts of the eye have autonomic innervation for the regulation of local homeostasis through synergy and antagonism. With the advent of new research methods, novel anatomical characteristics and numerous physiological processes have been elucidated. Herein, we summarize the anatomical and physiological functions of the ANS in the eye within the context of its intrinsic connections. This review provides novel insights into ocular studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 951
Gheorghe Cristian Popescu ◽  
Monica Popescu

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are essential soil microorganisms for terrestrial ecosystems and form beneficial symbioses with the root systems of most agricultural plants. The purpose of this paper was to examine the effect of the community of six AMF on the growth, physiological response, and flowering performance in organic potted lavender culture. The mixture of AMF containing Rhizophagus irregularis, Claroideoglomus claroideum, Funneliformis mosseae, Funneliformis geosporum, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, and Glomus microaggregatum was added in a pot with peat, volcanic rock, and coconut bark. We analyzed the fresh shoot biomass, root biomass, total plant biomass, leaf area, flowering performance, photosynthesis rate, and photosynthetic pigment content. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was performed to get a better understanding of the relationships between the studied variables. The total plant biomass was more pronounced in plants with AMF-S20g (212.01 g plant−1) and AMF-S30g (220.25 g plant−1) than with AMF-S10g (201.96 g plant−1) or in untreated plants (180.87 g plant−1). A statistically significant increase for Chl a, Chl b, and Car was found for AMF-S20g and AMF-S30. Our findings suggest that the AMF mixture application in a growing substrate with peat, coconut bark, and volcanic rock improved plant growth, physiological processes, and ornamental value in mycorrhizal lavender plants. This environmentally friendly agricultural practice could be used for the sustainable production of lavender.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Dingkai Xu ◽  
Ling Wang

Pituitary adenomas (PAs) account for the top three primary intracranial tumors in terms of total incidence rate. PAs can cause severe endocrine disorders and even malignant features, such as invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. Therefore, the early diagnosis and accurate prognosis would be greatly beneficial for clinical treatment of PAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, protein-noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. They regulate essential physiological processes, including proliferation, growth, and apoptosis, and also they involve in the invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. At the tissue level, differential miRNA expression in endocrine malignancies including PAs has been reported. When miRNAs have been successfully detected in various biofluids and cell-free environments, their important roles as potential screening or prognostic biomarkers have been extensively investigated. The current work reviews recent studies on the emerging roles of miRNAs in PAs and the clinical significance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 818
Merel van Nuland ◽  
Tessa F. Ververs ◽  
Marnix G. E. H. Lam

The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the Western population. Obesity is known to influence not only the proportion of adipose tissue but also physiological processes that could alter drug pharmacokinetics. Yet, there are no specific dosing recommendations for radiopharmaceuticals in this patient population. This could potentially lead to underdosing and thus suboptimal treatment in obese patients, while it could also lead to drug toxicity due to high levels of radioactivity. In this review, relevant literature is summarized on radiopharmaceutical dosing and pharmacokinetic properties, and we aimed to translate these data into practical guidelines for dosing of radiopharmaceuticals in obese patients. For radium-223, dosing in obese patients is well established. Furthermore, for samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene (EDTMP), dose-escalation studies show that the maximum tolerated dose will probably not be reached in obese patients when dosing on MBq/kg. On the other hand, there is insufficient evidence to support dose recommendations in obese patients for rhenium-168-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP), sodium iodide-131, iodide 131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), lutetium-177-dotatate, and lutetium-177-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). From a pharmacokinetic perspective, fixed dosing may be appropriate for these drugs. More research into obese patient populations is needed, especially in the light of increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Shoule Wang ◽  
Zhenyong Zhao ◽  
Shaoqing Ge ◽  
Ke Zhang ◽  
Changyan Tian ◽  

Halophytes possess the capacity to uptake high levels of salt through physiological processes and their root architecture. Here, we investigated whether halophyte/non-halophyte intercropping in saline soil benefits plant growth and contains root-dialogue between interspecific species. Field and pot experiments were conducted to determine the plant biomasses and salt and nutrient distributions in three suaeda (Suaeda salsa)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping systems, set up by non-barrier, nylon-barrier, and plastic-barrier between plant roots. The suaeda/maize intercropping obviously transferred more Na+ to the suaeda root zone and decreased salt and Na+ contents. However, the biomass of the non-barrier-treated maize was significantly lower than that of the nylon and plastic barrier-treated maize. There was lower available N content in the soil of the non-barrier treated groups compared with the plastic barrier-treated groups. In addition, the pH was lower, and the available nutrient content was higher in the nylon barrier, which suggested that rhizospheric processes might occur between the two species. Therefore, we concluded that the suaeda/maize intercropping would be beneficial to the salt removal, but it caused an adverse effect for maize growth due to interspecific competition, and also revealed potential rhizospheric effects through the role of roots. This study provides an effective way for the improvement of saline land.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 480
Ziad Omran

Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1a1 (ALDH1a1), the enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinal into retinoic acid, represents a key therapeutic target for the treatment of debilitating disorders such as cancer, obesity, and inflammation. Drugs that can inhibit ALDH1a1 include disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug to treat chronic alcoholism. Disulfiram, by carbamylation of the catalytic cysteines, irreversibly inhibits ALDH1a1 and ALDH2. The latter is the isozyme responsible for important physiological processes such as the second stage of alcohol metabolism. Given the fact that ALDH1a1 has a larger substrate tunnel than that in ALDH2, replacing disulfiram ethyl groups with larger motifs will yield selective ALDH1a1 inhibitors. We report herein the synthesis of new inhibitors of ALDH1a1 where (hetero)aromatic rings were introduced into the structure of disulfiram. Most of the developed compounds retained the anti-ALDH1a1 activity of disulfiram; however, they were completely devoid of inhibitory activity against ALDH2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Elyse K. McMahon ◽  
Elizabeth Youatt ◽  
Sonia A. Cavigelli

Animal behaviour research has experienced a renewed interest in consistent individual differences (i.e. animal personality or temperament). Recent ecological studies have identified environmental conditions that give rise to the development and evolution of temperaments and to fitness-related outcomes of temperament. Additional literature has also described relationships between temperaments and physiological regulation. However, one-to-one relationships between one behavioural trait and one physiological system do not account for co-selection of behavioural and physiological traits, nor the complex signalling among physiological systems. In the current paper, we review the literature on multiple physiological processes associated with temperament, propose temperament-specific physiological profiles, and focus on next steps to understand the functional significance, evolution and maintenance of temperaments. We propose that to understand causes and consequences of temperament we need to characterize integrative physiological profiles associated with different temperaments.

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