Molecular Structure
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Author(s):  
Rosaria Ciriminna ◽  
Alexandra Fidalgo ◽  
Antonino Scurria ◽  
Laura Ilharco ◽  
Mario Pagliaro

From new understanding of pectin molecular structure and physiological effects on man up to new production methods and new applications, significant new knowledge of pectin has emerged in the last two decades (2010-2020). These developments open the route to new and unexpected applications of this uniquely complex heteropolysaccharide ubiquitous in plants and fruits well beyond its traditional use as food hydrocolloid. This study provides a unified perspective on the new science and technology of pectin. Furthermore, we offer an insight into forthcoming pectin uses from an expanded perspective taking into account selected technology and economic factors that, we argue in this study, will shortly impact the pectin production and uptake in many countries.


ACS Omega ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Katsuma Ishino ◽  
Hajime Shingai ◽  
Yasuyuki Hikita ◽  
Isao Yoshikawa ◽  
Hirohiko Houjou ◽  
...  

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (22) ◽  
pp. 7027
Author(s):  
Adam Zając ◽  
Jacek Michalski ◽  
Maciej Ptak ◽  
Lucyna Dymińska ◽  
Alicja Z. Kucharska ◽  
...  

The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of loganic acid (LA) were calculated using B3LYP density functional theory, the 6–311G(2d,2p) basis set, and the GAUSSIAN 03W program. The solid-phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of LA were recorded in the 100–4000 cm−1 range. The assignment of the observed bands to the respective normal modes was proposed on the basis of the PED approach. The stability of the LA molecule was considered using NBO analysis. The electron absorption and luminescence spectra were measured and discussed in terms of the calculated singlet, triplet, HOMO, and LUMO electron energies. The Stokes shift derived from the optical spectra was 20,915 cm−1.


Author(s):  
Camilla Borges Gazolla ◽  
Adriana Ludwig ◽  
Joana de Moura Gama ◽  
Daniel Pacheco Bruschi

Abstract Anuran genomes have a large number and diversity of transposable elements, but are little explored, mainly in relation to their molecular structure and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigated the retrotransposons containing tyrosine recombinase (YR) (order DIRS) in the genome of Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis. These anurans show 2n = 20 and the 2n = 36 karyotypes, respectively. They diverged about 48 million years ago (mya) and X. laevis had an allotetraploid origin (around 17-18 mya). Our investigation is based on the analysis of the molecular structure and the phylogenetic relationships of 95 DIRS families of Xenopus belonging to DIRS-like and Ngaro-like superfamilies. We were able to identify molecular signatures in the 5' and 3' non-coding terminal regions, preserved open reading frames (ORFs) and conserved domains that are specific to distinguish each superfamily. We recognize two ancient amplification waves of DIRS-like elements that occurred in the ancestor of both species and a higher density of the old/degenerate copies detected in both subgenomes of X. laevis. More recent amplification waves are seen in X. tropicalis (less than 3.2 mya) and X. laevis (around 10 mya) corroborating with transcriptional activity evidence. All DIRS-like families were found in both X. laevis subgenomes, while a few were most represented in the L subgenome. Ngaro-like elements presented less diversity and quantity in X. tropicalis and X. laevis genomes, although potentially active copies were found in both species and this is consistent with a recent amplification wave seen in the evolutionary landscape. Our findings highlight a differential diversity-level and evolutionary dynamics of the YR retrotransposons in X. tropicalis and X. laevis species expanding our comprehension of the behavior of these elements in both genomes during the diversification process.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3099
Author(s):  
Dmitry Goloshchapov ◽  
Nikita Buylov ◽  
Anna Emelyanova ◽  
Ivan Ippolitov ◽  
Yuri Ippolitov ◽  
...  

In this work, for the first time, the influence of the coordination environment as well as Ca and P atomic states on biomimetic composites integrated with dental tissue was investigated. Bioinspired dental composites were synthesised based on nanocrystalline calcium carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite Ca4ICa6IIPO46−xCO3x+yOH2−y (nano-cHAp) obtained from a biogenic source and a set of polar amino acids that modelled the organic matrix. Biomimetic composites, as well as natural dental tissue samples, were investigated using Raman spectromicroscopy and synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Molecular structure and energy structure studies revealed several important features related to the different calcium atomic environments. It was shown that biomimetic composites created in order to reproduce the physicochemical properties of dental tissue provide good imitation of molecular and electron energetic properties, including the carbonate anion CO32− and the atomic Ca/P ratio in nanocrystals. The features of the molecular structure of biomimetic composites are inherited from the nano-cHAp (to a greater extent) and the amino acid cocktail used for their creation, and are caused by the ratio between the mineral and organic components, which is similar to the composition of natural enamel and dentine. In this case, violation of the nano-cHAp stoichiometry, which is the mineral basis of the natural and bioinspired composites, as well as the inclusion of different molecular groups in the nano-cHAp lattice, do not affect the coordination environment of phosphorus atoms. The differences observed in the molecular and electron energetic structures of the natural enamel and dentine and the imitation of their properties by biomimetic materials are caused by rearrangement in the local environment of the calcium atoms in the HAp crystal lattice. The surface of the nano-cHAp crystals in the natural enamel and dentine involved in the formation of bonds with the organic matrix is characterised by the coordination environment of the calcium atom, corresponding to its location in the CaI position—that is, bound through common oxygen atoms with PO4 tetrahedrons. At the same time, on the surface of nano-cHAp crystals in bioinspired dental materials, the calcium atom is characteristically located in the CaII position, bound to the hydroxyl OH group. The features detected in the atomic and molecular coordination environment in nano-cHAp play a fundamental role in recreating a biomimetic dental composite of the natural organomineral interaction in mineralised tissue and will help to find an optimal way to integrate the dental biocomposite with natural tissue.


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