diabetic kidney disease
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Hui Liao ◽  
Dayue Shen ◽  
Xilan Zhang ◽  
Jufang Wang ◽  

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the current leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Inonotus obliquus (chaga), a medicinal fungus, has been used in treatment of diabetes. Here, we aim to identify the renal protective effects of chaga extracts on a DKD rat model which was induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection. During the total 17-weeks experiment, the biological parameters of serum and urine were examined, and the color Doppler ultrasound of renal artery, the periodic acid-Schiff staining, and electron microscopy of kidney tissue were performed. The compositions of chaga extracts were analyzed and the intervention effects of the extracts were also observed. Compared with the normal control group, the biochemical research showed that insulin resistance was developed, blood glucose and total cholesterol were elevated, urinary protein excretion and serum creatinine levels were significantly increased in the DKD model. The ultrasound examinations confirmed the deteriorated blood flow parameters of the left renal interlobar artery in the rat models. Finally, histopathological data supported renal injury on the thickened glomerular basement membrane and fusion of the foot processes. 8 weeks intervention of chaga improved the above changes significantly, and the 100 mg/kg/d chaga group experienced significant effects compared with the 50 mg/kg/d in some parameters. Our findings suggested that Doppler ultrasound examinations guided with biochemical indicators played important roles in evaluating the renal injury as an effective, noninvasive, and repeatable method in rats. Based on biochemical, ultrasound, and histopathological evidence, we confirmed that chaga had pharmacodynamic effects on diabetes-induced kidney injury and the aforementioned effects may be related to delaying the progression of DKD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haiyang Li ◽  
Yunzhu Shen ◽  
Zhikai Yu ◽  
Yinghui Huang ◽  
Ting He ◽  

AimsTo investigate the potential role of renal arterial resistance index (RI) in the differential diagnosis between diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and non-diabetic kidney disease (NDKD) and establish a better-quantified differential diagnostic model.Materials and MethodsWe consecutively reviewed 469 type 2 diabetes patients who underwent renal biopsy in our center. According to the renal biopsy results, eligible patients were classified into the DKD group and the NDKD group. The diagnostic significance of RI was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to search for independent risk factors associated with DKD. Then a novel diagnostic model was established using multivariate logistic regression analysis.ResultsA total of 332 DKD and 137 NDKD patients were enrolled for analysis. RI was significantly higher in the DKD group compared with those in the NDKD group (0.70 vs. 0.63, p< 0.001). The optimum cutoff value of RI for predicting DKD was 0.66 with sensitivity (69.2%) and specificity (80.9%). Diabetic retinopathy, diabetes duration ≥ 60 months, HbA1c ≥ 7.0(%), RI ≥ 0.66, and body mass index showed statistical significance in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Then, we constructed a new diagnostic model based on these results. And the validation tests indicated that the new model had good sensitivity (81.5%) and specificity (78.6%).ConclusionsRI has a potential role in discriminating DKD from NDKD. The RI-based predicting model can be helpful for differential diagnosis of DKD and NDKD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zongwei Zhang ◽  
Wei Liang ◽  
Qiang Luo ◽  
Hongtu Hu ◽  
Keju Yang ◽  

BackgroundGlycolysis dysfunction is an important pathogenesis of podocyte injury in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Foot process fusion of podocytes and increased albuminuria are markers of early DKD. Moreover, cytoskeletal remodeling has been found to be involved in the foot process fusion of podocytes. However, the connections between cytoskeletal remodeling and alterations of glycolysis in podocytes in DKD have not been clarified.MethodsmRNA sequencing of glomeruli obtained from db/db and db/m mice with albuminuria was performed to analyze the expression profiling of genes in glucose metabolism. Expressions of phosphofructokinase platelet type (PFKP) in the glomeruli of DKD patients were detected. Clotrimazole (CTZ) was used to explore the renal effects of PFKP inhibition in diabetic mice. Using Pfkp siRNA or recombinant plasmid to manipulate PFKP expression, the effects of PFKP on high glucose (HG) induced podocyte damage were assessed in vitro. The levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) were measured. Targeted metabolomics was performed to observe the alterations of the metabolites in glucose metabolism after HG stimulation. Furthermore, aldolase type b (Aldob) siRNA or recombinant plasmid were applied to evaluate the influence of FBP level alteration on podocytes. FBP was directly added to podocyte culture media. Db/db mice were treated with FBP to investigate its effects on their kidney.ResultsmRNA sequencing showed that glycolysis enzyme genes were altered, characterized by upregulation of upstream genes (Hk1, and Pfkp) and down-regulation of downstream genes of glycolysis (Pkm, and Ldha). Moreover, the expression of PFKP was increased in glomeruli of DKD patients. The CTZ group presented more severe renal damage. In vitro, the Pfkp siRNA group and ALDOB overexpression group showed much more induced cytoskeletal remodeling in podocytes, while overexpression of PFKP and suppression of ALDOB in vitro rescued podocytes from cytoskeletal remodeling through regulation of FBP levels and inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK1 pathway. Furthermore, targeted metabolomics showed FBP level was significantly increased in HG group compared with the control group. Exogenous FBP addition reduced podocyte cytoskeletal remodeling and renal damage of db/db mice.ConclusionsThese findings provide evidence that PFKP may be a potential target for podocyte injury in DN and provide a rationale for applying podocyte glycolysis enhancing agents in patients with DKD.

Yaning Zheng ◽  
Sheng Ma ◽  
Qiaomu Huang ◽  
Yu Fang ◽  
Hongjin Tan ◽  

Background: The Phase III clinical trial of the non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone (BAY 94-8862) has been completed, aiming to investigate renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2D) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the efficacy and safety of finerenone in renal function remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of finerenone in treating the patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods: Databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on patients with DKD receiving finerenone treatment from inception to September 2021. Data including patient characteristics and interested outcomes were extracted, and the dichotomous data and continuous variables were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs, respectively. Results: A total of 4 RCTs involving 13945 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis results demonstrated that patients receiving finerenone showed a significant decrease in changing urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline (MD: ﹣0.30; 95%CI [﹣0.33, ﹣0.27] P=0.46, I2=0%) (P<0.05). The number of patients with ≥40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline in the finerenone group was significantly smaller than that in the placebo group (RR: 0.85; 95%CI [0.78, 0.93] P=0.60, I2=0%) (P<0.05). No difference was found in adverse events between the finerenone and placebo groups (RR: 1.00; 95%CI [0.98, 1.01] P = 0.94, I2=0%) (P=0.65). The incidence of hyperkalemia was higher in the finerenone group than that in the placebo group (RR: 2.03; 95%CI [1.83, 2.26] P = 0.95, I2=0%) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Finerenone contributes to the reduction of UACR and can ameliorate the deterioration of renal function in patients with T2D and CKD. The higher risk of hyperkalemia was found in the finerenone group compared with placebo, however, there was no difference in the risk of overall adverse events.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Joseph Stavas ◽  
David Gerber ◽  
Steven G. Coca ◽  
Arnold L. Silva ◽  
Ashley Johns ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Cell therapies explore unmet clinical needs of patients with chronic kidney disease with the potential to alter the pathway toward end-stage kidney disease. We describe the design and baseline patient characteristics of a phase II multicenter clinical trial utilizing the novel renal autologous cell therapy (REACT), by direct kidney parenchymal injection via the percutaneous approach in adults with type 2 diabetic kidney disease (T2DKD), to delay or potentially avoid renal replacement therapy. <b><i>Design:</i></b> The study conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized control, open-label, phase II clinical trial between an active treatment group (ATG) receiving REACT from the beginning of the trial and a contemporaneous deferred treatment group (DTG) receiving standard of care for 12 months before crossing over to receive REACT. <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> The objective of this study was to establish the safety and efficacy of 2 REACT injections with computed tomography guidance, into the renal cortex of patients with T2DKD administered 6 months apart, and to compare the longitudinal change in renal function between the ATG and the DTG. <b><i>Setting:</i></b> This was a multicenter study conducted in major US hospitals. <b><i>Patients:</i></b> We enrolled eighty-three adult patients with T2DKD, who have estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) between 20 and 50 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> All patients undergo an image-guided percutaneous kidney biopsy to obtain epithelial phenotype selective renal cells isolated from the kidney tissue that is then expanded ex vivo over 4–6 weeks, resulting in the REACT biologic product. Patients are randomized 1:1 into the ATG or the DTG. Primary efficacy endpoints for both study groups include eGFR measurements at baseline and at 3-month intervals, through 24 months after the last REACT injection. Safety analyses include biopsy-related complications, REACT injection, and cellular-related adverse events. The study utilizes Good Clinical and Manufacturing Practices and a Data and Safety Monitoring Board. The sample size confers a statistical power of 80% to detect an eGFR change in the ATG compared to the DTG at 24 months with an α = 0.05. <b><i>Limitations:</i></b> Blinding cannot occur due to the intent to treat procedure, biopsy in both groups, and open trial design. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> This multicenter phase II randomized clinical trial is designed to determine the efficacy and safety of REACT in improving or stabilizing renal function among patients with T2DKD stages 3a–4.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 378
Hanny Sawaf ◽  
George Thomas ◽  
Jonathan J. Taliercio ◽  
Georges Nakhoul ◽  
Tushar J. Vachharajani ◽  

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the United States. Risk factor modification, such as tight control of blood glucose, management of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and the use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade have been proven to help delay the progression of DKD. In recent years, new therapeutics including sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, endothelin antagonists, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), have provided additional treatment options for patients with DKD. This review discusses the various treatment options available to treat patients with diabetic kidney disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 843
Feng-Chih Kuo ◽  
Chia-Ter Chao ◽  
Shih-Hua Lin

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) refers to the phenomenon of progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate accompanied by adverse consequences, including fluid retention, electrolyte imbalance, and an increased cardiovascular risk compared to those with normal renal function. The triggers for the irreversible renal function deterioration are multifactorial, and diabetes mellitus serves as a major contributor to the development of CKD, namely diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Recently, epigenetic dysregulation emerged as a pivotal player steering the progression of DKD, partly resulting from hyperglycemia-associated metabolic disturbances, rising oxidative stress, and/or uncontrolled inflammation. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic molecular mechanisms, followed by summarizing current understandings of the epigenetic alterations pertaining to DKD. We highlight the epigenetic regulatory processes involved in several crucial renal cell types: Mesangial cells, podocytes, tubular epithelia, and glomerular endothelial cells. Finally, we highlight epigenetic biomarkers and related therapeutic candidates that hold promising potential for the early detection of DKD and the amelioration of its progression.

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