Mixed Protein
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2021 ◽  
Renu Maan ◽  
Louis Reese ◽  
Vladimir A. Volkov ◽  
Matthew R. King ◽  
Eli van der Sluis ◽  

Growing microtubule ends provide platforms for the accumulation of plus-end tracking proteins that organize into comets of mixed protein composition. Using a reconstituted fission yeast system consisting of end-binding protein Mal3, kinesin Tea2 and cargo Tip1, we found that these proteins can be driven into liquid phase droplets both in solution and at microtubule ends under crowding conditions. In the absence of crowding agents, cryo-electron tomography revealed that motor-dependent comets consist of disordered networks where multivalent interactions appear to facilitate the non-stoichiometric accumulation of cargo Tip1. We dissected the contribution of two disordered protein regions in Mal3 and found that both are required for the ability to form droplets and Tip1 accumulation, while autonomous Mal3 comet formation only requires one of them. Using theoretical modeling, we explore possible mechanisms by which motor activity and multivalent interactions may lead to the observed enrichment of Tip1 at microtubule ends.

2021 ◽  
Tumei Chen ◽  
Chenchen Wang ◽  
Linlin Hu ◽  
Hao Lu ◽  
Fangyu Song ◽  

Aim: This study aims to develop a subunit vaccine with high cross-protection for Streptococcus suis. Materials & methods: Four-week-old female BALB/c mice were first immunized with a single and mixed protein. Various indicators, such as antibody titers and various cytokine levels, were further analyzed. Results: The results showed that purified recombinant proteins IF-2 and 1022 had a good protective effect against lethal doses of S. suis serotype 2 and S. suis serotype 9. This study showed immunization with recombinant proteins. Conclusion: IF-2 and 1022 can enhance cross-protection against S. suis serotypes 2 and 9.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Béatrice S.-Y. Choi ◽  
Noëmie Daniel ◽  
Vanessa P. Houde ◽  
Adia Ouellette ◽  
Bruno Marcotte ◽  

AbstractAnimal models of human diseases are classically fed purified diets that contain casein as the unique protein source. We show that provision of a mixed protein source mirroring that found in the western diet exacerbates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by potentiating hepatic mTORC1/S6K1 signaling as compared to casein alone. These effects involve alterations in gut microbiota as shown by fecal microbiota transplantation studies. The detrimental impact of the mixed protein source is also linked with early changes in microbial production of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and elevated plasma and hepatic acylcarnitines, indicative of aberrant mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We further show that the BCFA, isobutyric and isovaleric acid, increase glucose production and activate mTORC1/S6K1 in hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that alteration of dietary protein source exerts a rapid and robust impact on gut microbiota and BCFA with significant consequences for the development of obesity and insulin resistance.

2020 ◽  
Vol 48 (5) ◽  
pp. 895-900
Kerolay Valadão Carvalho ◽  
Thiago Gabriel Luczinski ◽  
Wilson Rogério Boscolo ◽  
Jakeline Marcela Azambuja de Freitas ◽  
Altevir Signor

This study aimed at evaluating diets containing protein hydrolysate from poultry byproducts and swine liver (PHPPL), at different inclusion levels, for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles. Seven diets were evaluated, being a negative control (free of both hydrolysate and fishmeal) and positive control (free of hydrolysate but containing fishmeal), besides five diets with 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5% inclusion of the mixed protein hydrolysate. Significant effects were observed regarding the animals' final length, with higher values with the 1% inclusion level than the negative control. The liver's quantitative evaluation revealed that inclusions above 3% might lead to severe alterations in the organ's morphology. The use of PHPPL in the diets that did not contain fishmeal has shown to be effective in maintaining the performance parameters of Nile tilapia. Thus, its use is recommended considering an inclusion level of 3%.

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