cytokine levels
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2022 ◽  
pp. 153537022110669
Hassan Ahmed ◽  
Urooj Amin ◽  
Xiaolun Sun ◽  
Demetrius R Pitts ◽  
Yunbo Li ◽  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, can trigger septic shock, a severe form of inflammation-mediated sepsis with a very high mortality rate. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this endotoxin remain to be defined and detoxification of LPS is yet to be established. Macrophages, a type of immune cells, initiate a key response responsible for the cascade of events leading to the surge in inflammatory cytokines and immunopathology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophage cells could be ameliorated via CDDO-IM (2-cyano-3,12 dioxooleana-1,9 dien-28-oyl imidazoline), a novel triterpenoid compound. Data from this study show that gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were considerably increased by treatment with LPS in macrophages differentiated from ML-1 monocytes. Interestingly, LPS-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is reduced by CDDO-IM. In addition, endogenous upregulation of a series of antioxidant molecules by CDDO-IM provided protection against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. LPS-mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity was also noted to decrease upon treatment with CDDO-IM in macrophages suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signaling. This study would contribute to improve our understanding of the detoxification of endotoxin LPS by the triterpenoid CDDO-IM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Tomoko Takamatsu ◽  
Gaku Yamanaka ◽  
Koko Ohno ◽  
Kanako Hayashi ◽  
Yusuke Watanabe ◽  

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of West syndrome (WS). Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), have been reported to be associated with epilepsy. However, the assessment of cytokine changes in humans is not always simple or deterministic. This study aimed to elucidate the immunological mechanism of WS. We examined the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood cells collected from 13 patients with WS, using flow cytometry, and measured their serum cytokine levels. These were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. We found that the WS group had significantly higher percentages of inter IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)-positive monocytes, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in their CD8+ T cells than the control group. Interestingly, the group with sequelae revealed significantly lower levels of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-6 in their CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells, respectively, than the group without sequelae. There was no correlation between the ratios of positive cells and the serum levels of a particular cytokine in the WS patients. These cytokines in the peripheral immune cells might be involved in the neuroinflammation of WS, even in the absence of infectious or immune disease. Overall, an immunological approach using flow cytometry analysis might be useful for immunological studies of epilepsy.

Kidney360 ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.34067/KID.0006022021
Laisel Martinez ◽  
Mikael Perla ◽  
Marwan Tabbara ◽  
Juan C. Duque ◽  
Miguel G. Rojas ◽  

Background: Systemic cytokines are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis patients compared to the general population. However, whether cytokine levels interfere with vascular remodeling increasing the risk of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure remains unknown. Methods: This is a case-control study of 64 patients who underwent surgery for AVF creation (32 with AVF maturation failure and 32 matching controls with successful maturation). A total of 74 cytokines, including chemokines, interferons, interleukins, and growth factors, were measured in preoperative plasma samples using multiplex assays. Sixty-two patients were included in the statistical analyses. Associations with AVF failure were assessed using paired comparisons and conditional logistic regressions accounting for paired strata. Results: Seven cytokines were significantly higher in patients with AVF maturation failure than in matching controls (G-CSF, IL-6, MDC, RANTES, SDF-1α/β, TGFα, and TPO). Of these, G-CSF (odds ratio 1.71 [1.05-2.79] per 10 pg/mL), MDC (1.60 [1.08-2.38] per 100 pg/mL), RANTES (1.55 [1.10-2.17] per 100 pg/mL), SDF-1α/β (1.18 [1.04-1.33] per 1000 pg/mL), and TGFα (OR 1.39 [1.003-1.92] per 1 pg/mL) showed an incremental association by logistic regression. Conclusions: This study identified a profile of plasma cytokines associated with adverse maturation outcomes in AVFs. These findings may open the doors for future therapeutics and markers for risk stratification.

2022 ◽  
Ni Zhao ◽  
Ye Yi ◽  
Wen Cao ◽  
Nan Mei ◽  
Xiao Fu ◽  

Abstract Analyses of the composition of peripheral cytokines hold promise for providing a basis for determining the prognosis of lung cancer treated with immunotherapy. In this study, we assessed correlations between interleukins in peripheral blood and the disease prognosis in patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively collected eligible adult patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer. Patients with immune-related adverse events (AE) from immunotherapy had higher pretreatment levels of IL-2 (p=0.002), IL-17 (p=0.01), and IFN-α (p=0.02) than patients with nonimmune-related adverse events (NAE). Univariate analysis showed that changes in IL-2 (p=0.04), IL-5 (p=0.007), IFN-α (p=0.003), IFN-γ (p=0.012) and TNF-α (p=0.049) levels were significantly increased in patients with AE compared with those with NAE before the second cycle of therapy. Patients with a clinical benefit had higher levels of IL-17 before the third cycle than patients without a clinical benefit. No significant cytokine differences were observed between patients with and without a clinical benefit undergoing ICI pretreatment or in the first two cycles of therapy. Plasma cytokines are related to immune-related adverse events and clinical responses, which are potential predictive markers for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in lung cancer patients and may play an important role in selecting patients who would benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Santiago M. C. Lopez ◽  
Nader Shaikh ◽  
Monika Johnson ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Judith M. Martin ◽  

Objective: Children with no pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx are unlikely to have acute bacterial sinusitis. We evaluated whether information on clinical presentation, viral co-detection, and mucosal cytokine levels could be used to predict presence of bacteria in the nasopharynx.Method: We obtained nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children diagnosed with acute sinusitis. NP swabs were processed for bacterial culture, viral PCR testing, and cytokine expression. We examined whether results of the bacterial culture could be predicted based on the presence of clinical information, presence of viruses or mucosal cytokine levels.Results: We enrolled 174 children; 123 (71%) had a positive culture for potentially pathogenic bacteria and 51 (29%) had normal flora. 122/174 (70%) tested positive for one or more viruses. Compared to children with normal flora, children with pathogenic bacteria were more likely to have viruses (p < 0.01), but this relationship disappeared when we adjusted for age. Children with pathogenic bacteria in their nasopharynx and children with normal flora had similar levels of nasal cytokines.Conclusion: In children with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, clinical presentation, levels of nasal cytokines, and presence of viruses do not differentiate children with and without pathogenic bacteria in their nasopharynx.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
María Luisa Serrano Salazar ◽  
Jose Portolés ◽  
Maria de Valdenebro Recio ◽  
Silvia Rosado Garcia ◽  
Maria del Rosario Llópez Carratalá ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Cytokine storm control is the main target for improving severe COVID-19 by using immunosuppressive treatment. Effective renal replacement therapy (RRT) could give us an advantage removing cytokines in patients with RRT requirements superimposed on COVID-19. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This is a prospective observational study in COVID-19 patients who required hemodialysis (HD). Patients were assigned to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) and expanded HD (HDx) according to Brescia group recommendations. We measured several cytokines, β2 microglobulin and albumin levels pre/post-dialysis and on 1st–2nd week. We compared levels among both techniques and control group (HD without COVID-19). <b><i>Results:</i></b> We included 26 patients: 18 with COVID-19 on RRT (5 of them had acute kidney injury [AKI]) and 8 controls. We confirm higher cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients than controls and even higher in patients with AKI than in those with chronic kidney disease. Most cytokines raised during HD session, except IL-10 and TNFα. IL-10 was eliminated by any dialysis technique, while clearance of TNFα was higher in the HDx group. HDx achieved a deeper normalization of cytokines and β2 microglobulin reduction. Mortality was higher in the OL-HDF group than the HDx group. <b><i>Discussion:</i></b> Not all cytokines behave equally along HD session. The following characteristics should be taken into account, such as intrinsic kinetic profile during a HD session. HDx seems to get better performance, probably due to the combination of different factors; however, we did not reach statistical significance due to the small sample size, dropout, and reduction of AKI incidence during the 2nd pandemic wave. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> HDx appears to provide better clearance for TNFα and β2 microglobulin during HD session and associates lower mortality. We propose the HDx technique for COVID-19 patients with RRT requirements since it seems to be safe and more effective than OL-HDF. Further studies are still needed, but we hope that our preliminary data may help us in future pandemic waves of SARS-CoV-2 or other viruses still to come.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Jessica L. Dennison ◽  
Claude-Henry Volmar ◽  
Danbing Ke ◽  
James Wang ◽  
Emilie Gravel ◽  

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has minimally effective treatments currently. High concentrations of resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant found in plants, have been reported to affect several AD-related and neuroprotective genes. To address the low bioavailability of resveratrol, we investigated a novel oral formulation of resveratrol, JOTROLTM, that has shown increased pharmacokinetic properties compared to non-formulated resveratrol in animals and in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that equivalent doses of JOTROL, compared to non-formulated resveratrol, would result in greater brain exposure to resveratrol, and more efficacious responses on AD biomarkers. Methods: For sub-chronic reversal studies, 15-month-old male triple transgenic (APPSW/PS1M146V/TauP301L; 3xTg-AD) AD mice were treated orally with vehicle or 50 mg/kg JOTROL for 36 days. For prophylactic studies, male and female 3xTg-AD mice were similarly administered vehicle, 50 mg/kg JOTROL, or 50 mg/kg resveratrol for 9 months starting at 4 months of age. A behavioral battery was run, and mRNA and protein from brain and blood were analyzed for changes in AD-related gene and protein expression. Results: JOTROL displays significantly increased bioavailability over non-formulated resveratrol. Treatment with JOTROL resulted in AD-related gene expression changes (Adam10, Bace1, Bdnf, Psen1) some of which were brain region-dependent and sex-specific, as well as changes in inflammatory gene and cytokine levels. Conclusion: JOTROL may be effective as a prophylaxis and/or treatment for AD through increased expression and/or activation of neuroprotective genes, suppression of pro-inflammatory genes, and regulation of central and peripheral cytokine levels.

2022 ◽  
Min Nian ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  
Yan Feng ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Qian Chen ◽  

Abstract The effect of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) on cytokine homeostasis in human remains poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between legacy and emerging PFAS and cytokine profiles, and identify the main contributors to the disturbance of cytokine homeostasis. We quantified 21 PFAS in 198 Chinese women of childbearing age from 2015 to 2016. 13 cytokines were measured using the Meso Scale Discovery U-PLEX and V-PLEX platforms. The associations between PFAS exposure and cytokine levels were assessed using multiple linear regression (single-exposure), and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models (PFAS mixture exposure). In single PFAS models, legacy and alternative PFAS were positively associated with Th1 and Treg cytokines, and negatively associated with Th2 and Th17 cytokines. For instance, each ln-unit increase in 6:2 chlorinated perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with a decrease in IL-10 by -0.228 (95% CI: -0.336, -0.120), -0.153 (95% CI: -0.277, -0.030), and -0.174 (95% CI: -0.339, -0.010), respectively. The BKMR model showed a significantly positive association of PFAS mixture with TGF-β and a negative association with IL-10. Overall, these results indicate that both legacy and emerging PFAS may affect the homeostasis of cytokines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Gang Gao ◽  
Yufen Duan ◽  
Feng Chang ◽  
Ting Zhang ◽  
Xinhu Huang ◽  

AbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic condition. METTL14-mediated m6A modification is associated with SCI. This study was intended to investigate the functional mechanism of RNA methyltransferase METTL14 in spinal cord neuron apoptosis during SCI. The SCI rat model was established, followed by evaluation of pathological conditions, apoptosis, and viability of spinal cord neurons. The neuronal function of primary cultured spinal motoneurons of rats was assessed after hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. Expressions of EEF1A2, Akt/mTOR pathway-related proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis-related proteins were detected. EEF1A2 was weakly expressed and Akt/mTOR pathway was inhibited in SCI rat models. Hypoxia/Reoxygenation decreased the viability of spinal cord neurons, promoted LDH release and neuronal apoptosis. EEF1A2 overexpression promoted the viability of spinal cord neurons, inhibited neuronal apoptosis, and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels. Silencing METTL14 inhibited m6A modification of EEF1A2 and increased EEF1A2 expression while METTL14 overexpression showed reverse results. EEF1A2 overexpression promoted viability and inhibited apoptosis of spinal cord neurons and inflammation by activating the Akt/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, silencing METTL14 repressed apoptosis of spinal cord neurons and attenuated SCI by inhibiting m6A modification of EEF1A2 and activating the Akt/mTOR pathway.

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