hardware acceleration
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Author(s):  
Tom Hogervorst ◽  
Răzvan Nane ◽  
Giacomo Marchiori ◽  
Tong Dong Qiu ◽  
Markus Blatt ◽  
...  

Scientific computing is at the core of many High-Performance Computing applications, including computational flow dynamics. Because of the utmost importance to simulate increasingly larger computational models, hardware acceleration is receiving increased attention due to its potential to maximize the performance of scientific computing. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays could accelerate scientific computing because of the possibility to fully customize the memory hierarchy important in irregular applications such as iterative linear solvers. In this article, we study the potential of using Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in High-Performance Computing because of the rapid advances in reconfigurable hardware, such as the increase in on-chip memory size, increasing number of logic cells, and the integration of High-Bandwidth Memories on board. To perform this study, we propose a novel Sparse Matrix-Vector multiplication unit and an ILU0 preconditioner tightly integrated with a BiCGStab solver kernel. We integrate the developed preconditioned iterative solver in Flow from the Open Porous Media project, a state-of-the-art open source reservoir simulator. Finally, we perform a thorough evaluation of the FPGA solver kernel in both stand-alone mode and integrated in the reservoir simulator, using the NORNE field, a real-world case reservoir model using a grid with more than 10 5 cells and using three unknowns per cell.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Author(s):  
Nikolaos Alachiotis ◽  
Panagiotis Skrimponis ◽  
Manolis Pissadakis ◽  
Dionisios Pnevmatikatos

Disaggregated computer architectures eliminate resource fragmentation in next-generation datacenters by enabling virtual machines to employ resources such as CPUs, memory, and accelerators that are physically located on different servers. While this paves the way for highly compute- and/or memory-intensive applications to potentially deploy all CPUs and/or memory resources in a datacenter, it poses a major challenge to the efficient deployment of hardware accelerators: input/output data can reside on different servers than the ones hosting accelerator resources, thereby requiring time- and energy-consuming remote data transfers that diminish the gains of hardware acceleration. Targeting a disaggregated datacenter architecture similar to the IBM dReDBox disaggregated datacenter prototype, the present work explores the potential of deploying custom acceleration units adjacently to the disaggregated-memory controller on memory bricks (in dReDBox terminology), which is implemented on FPGA technology, to reduce data movement and improve performance and energy efficiency when reconstructing large phylogenies (evolutionary relationships among organisms). A fundamental computational kernel is the Phylogenetic Likelihood Function (PLF), which dominates the total execution time (up to 95%) of widely used maximum-likelihood methods. Numerous efforts to boost PLF performance over the years focused on accelerating computation; since the PLF is a data-intensive, memory-bound operation, performance remains limited by data movement, and memory disaggregation only exacerbates the problem. We describe two near-memory processing models, one that addresses the problem of workload distribution to memory bricks, which is particularly tailored toward larger genomes (e.g., plants and mammals), and one that reduces overall memory requirements through memory-side data interpolation transparently to the application, thereby allowing the phylogeny size to scale to a larger number of organisms without requiring additional memory.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Author(s):  
Christian Lienen ◽  
Marco Platzner

Robotics applications process large amounts of data in real time and require compute platforms that provide high performance and energy efficiency. FPGAs are well suited for many of these applications, but there is a reluctance in the robotics community to use hardware acceleration due to increased design complexity and a lack of consistent programming models across the software/hardware boundary. In this article, we present ReconROS , a framework that integrates the widely used robot operating system (ROS) with ReconOS, which features multithreaded programming of hardware and software threads for reconfigurable computers. This unique combination gives ROS 2 developers the flexibility to transparently accelerate parts of their robotics applications in hardware. We elaborate on the architecture and the design flow for ReconROS and report on a set of experiments that underline the feasibility and flexibility of our approach.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Author(s):  
Sourabh Kulkarni ◽  
Mario Michael Krell ◽  
Seth Nabarro ◽  
Csaba Andras Moritz

Epidemiology models are central to understanding and controlling large-scale pandemics. Several epidemiology models require simulation-based inference such as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to fit their parameters to observations. ABC inference is highly amenable to efficient hardware acceleration. In this work, we develop parallel ABC inference of a stochastic epidemiology model for COVID-19. The statistical inference framework is implemented and compared on Intel’s Xeon CPU, NVIDIA’s Tesla V100 GPU, Google’s V2 Tensor Processing Unit (TPU), and the Graphcore’s Mk1 Intelligence Processing Unit (IPU), and the results are discussed in the context of their computational architectures. Results show that TPUs are 3×, GPUs are 4×, and IPUs are 30× faster than Xeon CPUs. Extensive performance analysis indicates that the difference between IPU and GPU can be attributed to higher communication bandwidth, closeness of memory to compute, and higher compute power in the IPU. The proposed framework scales across 16 IPUs, with scaling overhead not exceeding 8% for the experiments performed. We present an example of our framework in practice, performing inference on the epidemiology model across three countries and giving a brief overview of the results.


2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-38
Author(s):  
Sergi Abadal ◽  
Akshay Jain ◽  
Robert Guirado ◽  
Jorge López-Alonso ◽  
Eduard Alarcón

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have exploded onto the machine learning scene in recent years owing to their capability to model and learn from graph-structured data. Such an ability has strong implications in a wide variety of fields whose data are inherently relational, for which conventional neural networks do not perform well. Indeed, as recent reviews can attest, research in the area of GNNs has grown rapidly and has lead to the development of a variety of GNN algorithm variants as well as to the exploration of ground-breaking applications in chemistry, neurology, electronics, or communication networks, among others. At the current stage research, however, the efficient processing of GNNs is still an open challenge for several reasons. Besides of their novelty, GNNs are hard to compute due to their dependence on the input graph, their combination of dense and very sparse operations, or the need to scale to huge graphs in some applications. In this context, this article aims to make two main contributions. On the one hand, a review of the field of GNNs is presented from the perspective of computing. This includes a brief tutorial on the GNN fundamentals, an overview of the evolution of the field in the last decade, and a summary of operations carried out in the multiple phases of different GNN algorithm variants. On the other hand, an in-depth analysis of current software and hardware acceleration schemes is provided, from which a hardware-software, graph-aware, and communication-centric vision for GNN accelerators is distilled.


2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Author(s):  
Lázaro Bustio-Martínez ◽  
René Cumplido ◽  
Martín Letras ◽  
Raudel Hernández-León ◽  
Claudia Feregrino-Uribe ◽  
...  

In data mining, Frequent Itemsets Mining is a technique used in several domains with notable results. However, the large volume of data in modern datasets increases the processing time of Frequent Itemset Mining algorithms, making them unsuitable for many real-world applications. Accordingly, proposing new methods for Frequent Itemset Mining to obtain frequent itemsets in a realistic amount of time is still an open problem. A successful alternative is to employ hardware acceleration using Graphics Processing Units (GPU) and Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA). In this article, a comprehensive review of the state of the art of Frequent Itemsets Mining hardware acceleration is presented. Several approaches (FPGA and GPU based) were contrasted to show their weaknesses and strengths. This survey gathers the most relevant and the latest research efforts for improving the performance of Frequent Itemsets Mining regarding algorithms advances and modern development platforms. Furthermore, this survey organizes the current research on Frequent Itemsets Mining from the hardware perspective considering the source of the data, the development platform, and the baseline algorithm.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Author(s):  
Joel Mandebi Mbongue ◽  
Danielle Tchuinkou Kwadjo ◽  
Alex Shuping ◽  
Christophe Bobda

Cloud deployments now increasingly exploit Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) accelerators as part of virtual instances. While cloud FPGAs are still essentially single-tenant, the growing demand for efficient hardware acceleration paves the way to FPGA multi-tenancy. It then becomes necessary to explore architectures, design flows, and resource management features that aim at exposing multi-tenant FPGAs to the cloud users. In this article, we discuss a hardware/software architecture that supports provisioning space-shared FPGAs in Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) clouds. The proposed hardware/software architecture introduces an FPGA organization that improves hardware consolidation and support hardware elasticity with minimal data movement overhead. It also relies on VirtIO to decrease communication latency between hardware and software domains. Prototyping the proposed architecture with a Virtex UltraScale+ FPGA demonstrated near specification maximum frequency for on-chip data movement and high throughput in virtual instance access to hardware accelerators. We demonstrate similar performance compared to single-tenant deployment while increasing FPGA utilization, which is one of the goals of virtualization. Overall, our FPGA design achieved about 2× higher maximum frequency than the state of the art and a bandwidth reaching up to 28 Gbps on 32-bit data width.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Author(s):  
Andrea Damiani ◽  
Giorgia Fiscaletti ◽  
Marco Bacis ◽  
Rolando Brondolin ◽  
Marco D. Santambrogio

“Cloud-native” is the umbrella adjective describing the standard approach for developing applications that exploit cloud infrastructures’ scalability and elasticity at their best. As the application complexity and user-bases grow, designing for performance becomes a first-class engineering concern. As an answer to these needs, heterogeneous computing platforms gained widespread attention as powerful tools to continue meeting SLAs for compute-intensive cloud-native workloads. We propose BlastFunction, an FPGA-as-a-Service full-stack framework to ease FPGAs’ adoption for cloud-native workloads, integrating with the vast spectrum of fundamental cloud models. At the IaaS level, BlastFunction time-shares FPGA-based accelerators to provide multi-tenant access to accelerated resources without any code rewriting. At the PaaS level, BlastFunction accelerates functionalities leveraging the serverless model and scales functions proactively, depending on the workload’s performance. Further lowering the FPGAs’ adoption barrier, an accelerators’ registry hosts accelerated functions ready to be used within cloud-native applications, bringing the simplicity of a SaaS-like approach to the developers. After an extensive experimental campaign against state-of-the-art cloud scenarios, we show how BlastFunction leads to higher performance metrics (utilization and throughput) against native execution, with minimal latency and overhead differences. Moreover, the scaling scheme we propose outperforms the main serverless autoscaling algorithms in workload performance and scaling operation amount.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Author(s):  
Erez Manor ◽  
Avrech Ben-David ◽  
Shlomo Greenberg

The use of RISC-based embedded processors aimed at low cost and low power is becoming an increasingly popular ecosystem for both hardware and software development. High-performance yet low-power embedded processors may be attained via the use of hardware acceleration and Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) extension. Recent publications of AI have demonstrated the use of Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) as a dedicated low-power solution for solving nonlinear equations applied to Neural Networks (NN). This paper proposes ISA extension to support floating-point CORDIC, providing efficient hardware acceleration for mathematical functions. A new DMA-based ISA extension approach integrated with a pipeline CORDIC accelerator is proposed. The CORDIC ISA extension is directly interfaced with a standard processor data path, allowing efficient implementation of new trigonometric ALU-based custom instructions. The proposed DMA-based CORDIC accelerator can also be used to perform repeated array calculations, offering a significant speedup over software implementations. The proposed accelerator is evaluated on Intel Cyclone-IV FPGA as an extension to Nios processor. Experimental results show a significant speedup of over three orders of magnitude compared with software implementation, while applied to trigonometric arrays, and outperforms the existing commercial CORDIC hardware accelerator.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 591
Author(s):  
Ahmed Yahia Kallel ◽  
Zheng Hu ◽  
Olfa Kanoun

For embedded impedance spectroscopy, a suitable method for analyzing AC signals needs to be carefully chosen to overcome limited processing capability and memory availability. This paper compares various methods, including the fast Fourier transform (FFT), the FFT with barycenter correction, the FFT with windowing, the Goertzel filter, the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), and sine fitting using linear or nonlinear least squares, and cross-correlation, for analyzing AC signals in terms of speed, memory requirements, amplitude measurement accuracy, and phase measurement accuracy. These methods are implemented in reference systems with and without hardware acceleration for validation. The investigation results show that the Goertzel algorithm has the best overall performance when hardware acceleration is excluded or in the case of memory constraints. In implementations with hardware acceleration, the FFT with barycentre correction stands out. The linear sine fitting method provides the most accurate amplitude and phase determinations at the expense of speed and memory requirements.


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