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2022 ◽  
pp. 113-120
Patrick Lo ◽  
Robert Sutherland ◽  
Wei-En Hsu ◽  
Russ Girsberger

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Victor Reyes-Umana ◽  
Jessica Kretschmer ◽  
John D. Coates

Recent reports of dissimilatory iodate-reducing microorganisms (DIRM) have arisen from studies of bacteria in marine environments. These studies described the physiology and distribution of DIRM while also demonstrating their presence in iodine-rich marine environments. We posited that despite lower iodine concentrations, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems should also harbor DIRM. We established numerous enrichments from coastal and freshwater environments that actively remove amended iodate. We describe the physiology and genome of a new DIRM isolate, Aromatoleum toluclasticum sp. TC-10, emerging from a freshwater creek microcosm. Like other DIRM, A. toluclasticum sp. TC-10 couples acetate oxidation to iodate reduction with a concomitant increase in the OD600. Our results indicate that A. toluclasticum sp. TC-10 performs dissimilatory iodate reduction (DIR) using the recently described iodate reductase (Idr). We provide further evidence of horizontal gene transfer of the idr genes by demonstrating the lack of Idr in the closely related (99.93% 16S rDNA sequence identity) A. toluclasticum sp. MF63 and describe the heterogeneity of the accessory proteins associated with the iodate reduction island (IRI). These observations provide additional evidence that DIR is a horizontally acquired metabolism with broad environmental distribution beyond exclusively marine environments.

2022 ◽  
Qianqian Liu ◽  
Huijie Xue ◽  
Fei Chai ◽  
Zhengui Wang ◽  
Yi Chao ◽  

Previous studies suggest importance of wind forcing on salt intrusion length and salt flux in river-dominated microtidal estuaries (with tidal range < 2 m). In this study, we investigate the role of wind forcing on salt intrusion in a mesotidal estuary, San Francisco Bay (SFB), with tidal ranges between 2 m and 4 m, through an open-source model of high transferability, the Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM). Meanwhile, we investigate circulation and salinity variation of San Francisco Bay. The model’s performance in hydrodynamics at tidal, spring/neap and seasonal time scales is validated through model-observation comparisons. Through realistically forced and process-oriented experiments, we demonstrate that spring/neap tides can cause fortnightly variations in salinity and currents by modulating vertical mixing and stratification; and seasonal variability of circulation in North Bay is determined by change of river discharge and modified by winds, while in South Bay it is dominated by wind-driven flows. Furthermore, we revealed the role of wind on X2 (the distance from the Golden Gate Bridge to the 2-PSU isohaline at the bottom). The model results show that X2 is primarily influenced by river flow and proportional to river flow to the ¼ power. Meanwhile, wind plays a secondary role in modifying X2 by increasing X2 from 0 to 5 km during low discharge period, while spring/neap tide modulation on X2 is negligible but important for salt balance in sub-regions downstream of X2.

Diagnosis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Denise M. Connor ◽  
Sirisha Narayana ◽  
Gurpreet Dhaliwal

Abstract Objectives Diagnostic error is a critical patient safety issue that can be addressed in part through teaching clinical reasoning. Medical schools with clinical reasoning curricula tend to emphasize general reasoning concepts (e.g., differential diagnosis generation). Few published curricula go beyond teaching the steps in the diagnostic process to address how students should structure their knowledge to optimize diagnostic performance in future clinical encounters or to discuss elements outside of individual cognition that are essential to diagnosis. Methods In 2016, the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine launched a clinical reasoning curriculum that simultaneously emphasizes reasoning concepts and intentional knowledge construction; the roles of patients, families, interprofessional colleagues; and communication in diagnosis. The curriculum features a longitudinal thread beginning in first year, with an immersive three week diagnostic reasoning (DR) course in the second year. Students evaluated the DR course. Additionally, we conducted an audit of the multiyear clinical reasoning curriculum using the Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine-Macy Foundation interprofessional diagnostic education competencies. Results Students rated DR highly (range 4.13–4.18/5 between 2018 and 2020) and reported high self-efficacy with applying clinical reasoning concepts and communicating reasoning to supervisors. A course audit demonstrated a disproportionate emphasis on individual (cognitive) competencies with inadequate attention to systems and team factors in diagnosis. Conclusions Our clinical reasoning curriculum led to high student self-efficacy. However, we stressed cognitive aspects of reasoning with limited instruction on teams and systems. Diagnosis education should expand beyond the cognitive- and physician-centric focus of most published reasoning courses.

2022 ◽  
pp. 37-56
Dagmara Rode

Dzięki obserwacji współczesnego ruchu feministycznego można dostrzec zaskakujące nieraz połączenia z dokonaniami poprzednich pokoleń działaczek kobiecych, ujawniające się w reinterpretowanych wciąż od nowa strategiach działania, jak sięganie do osobistego doświadczenia. Podnoszenie świadomości, ukształtowane w czasie drugiej fali zachodniego feminizmu, wpłynęło na realizacje artystyczne, w tym na feministyczny film dokumentalny lat 70. Celem artykułu jest scharakteryzowanie różnych sposobów realizowania strategii podnoszenia świadomości w Janie’s Janie Geri Ashur (we współpracy z Peterem Bartonem, Marilyn Mulford i Stephanie Palewski, 1970), The Woman’s Film San Francisco Newsreel (1971) i Rape JoAnn Elam (1975). Przybliżywszy samą kwestię podnoszenia świadomości, autorka demonstruje, jak struktura grup podejmujących tę aktywność przekłada się na analizowane prace dzięki „opowieściom pestkom”, niehierarchicznym relacjom między filmowczyniami a bohaterkami czy chwytom naruszającym strukturę rzeczywistości.

2022 ◽  

John Steinbeck’s life was framed by global conflict. Born on 27 February 1902, in Salinas, California, he was twelve years old when World War I began and sixteen when Germany and the Allies signed an armistice bringing to cessation the “War to End All Wars.” Unfortunately, World War II began in 1939. Echoes of the rise of Adolf Hitler and threats of war occur throughout his early works, as in the journals accompanying The Grapes of Wrath (1939), in which he writes of the angst of his times, fearing the inevitably approaching conflict. When World War II came, he became involved in the wartime efforts, working as a correspondent for the New York Herald Tribune and experiencing the London Blitz, with sixty-six of his eighty-five dispatches gathered in Once There Was a War (1958). Recognizing Steinbeck’s expertise as a writer and desiring to enlist public support, the government commissioned him to write Bombs Away (1942), an account of a bomber team and its specially equipped plane. Hence, he observed American airmen as they trained and went into battle, flying on forays with them. Similarly, during the Vietnam War Newsday hired him as a war correspondent, and again he went to the front and into battle with the enlisted men, with his accounts collected in Letters to Alicia (1965). On the home front, the San Francisco News commissioned him to report on Dust Bowl migrants working as harvesters in California. Incensed by what he witnessed—the specter of starvation, babies and children dying, and malnutrition taking a toll on the very humanity of the migrants—he wrote The Harvest Gypsies (1936), background for The Grapes of Wrath. An early ecologist, Steinbeck loved the land, depicting the earth as a living, sensate character in The Grapes of Wrath—an elegiac mourning over its the desecration. Later, his nonfiction America and Americans (1966) decried pollution and the felling of redwood trees. Looking into the future with some hope but much trepidation, this work also addressed ethnic and racial prejudices, questionable politics, ageism and sexism, loss of ethical moorings. Believing his country to be infested with a deadly immorality, he warned Americans to root out this cancerous growth in order to survive. His last work of fiction, The Winter of Our Discontent (1961), carried these same concerns, with protagonist Ethan Allen Hawley portrayed as an Every American, who must rise above his failings. John Steinbeck died 20 December 1968, of congestive heart failure.

Humanities ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Rand Hazou ◽  
Reginold Daniels

This article explores a creative project entitled Performing Liberation which sought to empower communities with direct experience of incarceration to create and share creative work as part of transnational dialogue. One of the aims of the project was to facilitate creative dialogue and exchange between two incarcerated communities: prisoners at Auckland Prison and prisoners at San Quentin Prison in San Francisco. Written using autoethnographic methods, this co-authored article explores our recollections of key moments in a creative workshop at Auckland Prison in an attempt to explain its impact on stimulating the creativity of the participants. We begin by describing the context of incarceration in the US and New Zealand and suggest that these seemingly divergent locations are connected by mass incarceration. We also provide an overview of the creative contexts at San Quentin and Auckland Prison on which the Performing Liberation project developed. After describing key moments in the workshop, the article interrogates the creative space that it produced in relation to the notion of liberation, as a useful concept to interrogate various forms of oppression, and as a practice that is concerned with unshackling the body, mind, and spirit.

2022 ◽  

Evan S. Connell (b. 1924–d. 2013) was born in Kansas City, Missouri, and grew up there in a prosperous family with historical ties—reflected in his middle name, Shelby—to Confederate general Jo Shelby. Although his physician father expected his namesake son to join him in his medical practice, Connell, while at Dartmouth College, began to consider more creative options, including writing and making art. After a three-year stint in the U.S. Navy Air Corps during World War II—he never left the country—Connell began writing down his experiences and finished his undergraduate studies at the University of Kansas. On the Lawrence, Kansas, campus, he studied art and continued to write, under the tutelage of Ray B. West, who edited the Western Review. With aid from the G.I. Bill and encouragement from West, Connell successfully applied to Wallace Stegner’s first class of creative writing fellows at Stanford University. He spent another year in writing and art classes at Columbia University in New York. Ultimately, he saw more of a future in writing, though he kept up a practice of life drawing and painting for many years. Connell had an early run of published short stories, beginning in 1946. After a fallow period in California, Connell went to Paris in 1952, where he became acquainted with the founding editors of The Paris Review. The literary journal published three of Connell’s stories, including segments from Connell’s novel in progress, which eventually was titled Mrs. Bridge. By then, Connell had taken up residence in San Francisco. After rejection by several New York publishers, the Viking Press took on Connell, releasing a story collection in 1957 before cementing Connell’s reputation with Mrs. Bridge, a quietly evocative portrait of a prosperous, middle-American family, which became his most admired and lucrative work of fiction. Over the next five decades Connell veered into an extraordinary variety of works—fiction, nonfiction, history, and hybrid experiments that looked like epic poetry. This pattern of no pattern in the arc of Connell’s work, combined with his lack of interest in self-promotion, seemed to confuse the New York publishing world, and critics often cited his unpredictability as the cause of a kind of literary marginalization. His sprawling account of Custer at the Little Bighorn became hugely popular in the 1980s, raising his profile and reviving his reputation as a writer.

2022 ◽  
pp. 78-82
Paola S. Hernández ◽  
Analola Santana

2022 ◽  
Giorgio D‘Ettorre ◽  
Marco Farronato ◽  
Ettore Candida ◽  
Vincenzo Quinzi ◽  
Cristina Grippaudo

ABSTRACT Objectives To compare three-dimensional facial scans obtained by stereophotogrammetry with two different applications for smartphone supporting the TrueDepth system, a structured light technology. Materials and Methods Facial scans of 40 different subjects were acquired with three different systems. The 3dMDtrio Stereophotogrammetry System (3dMD, Atlanta, Ga) was compared with a smartphone (iPhone Xs; Apple, Cupertino, Calif) equipped with the Bellus3D Face Application (version 1.6.11; Bellus3D Inc, Campbell, Calif) or Capture (version 1.2.5; Standard Cyborg Inc, San Francisco, Calif). Times of image acquisition and elaboration were recorded. The surface-to-surface deviation and the distance between 18 landmarks from 3dMD reference images to those acquired with Bellus3D or Capture were measured. Results Capturing and processing times with the smartphone applications were considerably longer than with the 3dMD system. The surface-to-surface deviation analysis between the Bellus3D and 3dMD showed an overlap percentage of 80.01% ± 5.92% and 56.62% ± 7.65% within the ranges of 1 mm and 0.5 mm discrepancy, respectively. Images from Capture showed an overlap percentage of 81.40% ± 9.59% and 56.45% ± 11.62% within the ranges of 1 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions The face image acquisition with the 3dMD device is fast and accurate, but bulky and expensive. The new smartphone applications combined with the TrueDepth sensors show promising results. They need more accuracy from the operator and more compliance from the patient because of the increased acquisition time. Their greatest advantages are related to cost and portability.

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