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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Abraham J. Kandathil ◽  
Andrea L. Cox ◽  
Kimberly Page ◽  
David Mohr ◽  
Roham Razaghi ◽  

AbstractThere is an urgent need for innovative methods to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens like HIV and HCV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We investigate if PWID who acquire non-pathogenic bloodborne viruses like anelloviruses and pegiviruses might be at greater risk of acquiring a bloodborne pathogen. PWID who later acquire HCV accumulate more non-pathogenic viruses in plasma than matched controls who do not acquire HCV infection. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of those non-pathogenic virus sequences reveals drug use networks. Here we find first in Baltimore and confirm in San Francisco that the accumulation of non-pathogenic viruses in PWID is a harbinger for subsequent acquisition of pathogenic viruses, knowledge that may guide the prioritization of the public health resources to combat HIV and HCV.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (3) ◽  
pp. 129-135
Lynne Sachs

Abstract This personal essay articulates filmmaker Lynne Sachs's experiences working with experimental filmmaker Barbara Hammer. Sachs conveys the journey of her relationship with Hammer when they were both artists living in San Francisco in the late 1980s and 1990s and then later in New York City. Sachs initially discusses her experiences making Carolee, Barbara and Gunvor (US, 2018), which includes Hammer, the conceptual and performance artist Carolee Schneemann, and the experimental filmmaker Gunvor Nelson. She then discusses her 2019 film, A Month of Single Frames, which uses material from Hammer's 1998 artist residency in a Cape Cod shack without running water or electricity. While there, she shot film, recorded sounds, and kept a journal. In 2018, Hammer began her process of dying by revisiting her personal archive. She gave all of her images, sounds, and writing from the residency to Sachs and invited her to make a film with the material. Through her own filmmaking, Sachs explores Hammer's experience of solitude. She places text on the screen as a way to be in dialogue with both Hammer and her audience. This essay provides context for the intentions and challenges that grew out of both of these film collaborations.

2021 ◽  
pp. 109861112110375
Dina Perrone ◽  
Aili Malm ◽  
Erica Jovanna Magaña

In 2017, San Francisco (SF) implemented Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD), a program Beckett described as harm reduction policing. Through a process and outcome evaluation of LEAD SF, this paper demonstrates the positive impacts of harm reduction policing, on those who use drugs and/or engage in sex work. When law enforcement officers used their discretion to divert individuals into LEAD rather than arrest, those individuals had significantly fewer felony and misdemeanor arrests and felony cases, in comparison to a propensity score matched group. The focus group and interview data describe that the collaboration, the warm handoff, and LEAD’s harm reduction principles were mechanisms of success. However, obtaining officer buy-in was a key challenge. Despite that obstacle, LEAD SF’s harm reduction policing reduces offending, improves the wellbeing of people who use drugs and engage in sex work, and allows the police to carry out their mandate to protect and serve.

2021 ◽  
Anthony D Mancini ◽  
Gabriele Prati

How does the prevalence of COVID-19 impact people’s mental health? In a preregistered study (N = 857), we sought to answer this question by comparing demographically matched samples in four regions in the United States and Italy with different levels of cumulative COVID-19 prevalence. No main effect of prevalence emerged. Rather, prevalence region had opposite effects, depending on the country. New York City participants (high prevalence) reported more general distress, PTSD symptoms, and COVID-19 worry than San Francisco (low prevalence). Conversely, Campania participants (low prevalence) reported more general distress, PTSD symptoms, and COVID-19 worry than Lombardy (high prevalence). Consistent with these patterns, COVID-19 worry was more strongly linked with general distress and PTSD symptoms in New York than San Francisco, whereas COVID-19 worry was more strongly linked with PTSD in Campania than Lombardy. In exploratory analyses, media exposure predicted and mapped on to geographic variation in mental health outcomes.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0308518X2110571
Maj Grasten ◽  
Leonard Seabrooke ◽  
Duncan Wigan

Firms can use legal and spatial scaling to increase their control and capacity to exploit assets. Here we examine how platform firms, like AirBnB, Uber, and Bird, scale their operations through global wealth chains. Their use of law is to maximize wealth creation and protection, while their services use local spaces to extract value from established property, labor, and public thoroughfares. We examine how such ‘networked accumulation’ platform firms use legal and spatial scaling through legal affordances. This includes opportunities for absences, ambiguities and arbitrage that are realized via multi and inter-scalar strategies and produce variegation. Our analysis draws on legal documents, as well as interviews, from Barcelona and San Francisco. The article contributes with a model of how platform firms use legal and spatial scaling, as well as how activists can challenge their operations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Pedro Morais ◽  
João Encarnação ◽  
Maria Alexandra Teodósio ◽  
Ester Dias

About 3.1 billion people around the world live within 100 km of the coastline. If you are one of those people, then you also live near an estuary. What you probably do not know is that many alien species live in this underwater world, and we are not talking about extraterrestrial species from outer space. Are you scared? Well, do not be! These alien species are from planet Earth. In this article, we will tell you what alien species are, why scientists study them, how any species may become an alien, and how a few alien species may become an invasive species. You will also learn how you can help scientists find and track alien species, and how to defeat them. Along the way, we will give examples of alien species living in the San Francisco Estuary in North America, a paradise for hundreds of alien species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4625
Niky C. Taylor ◽  
Raphael M. Kudela

Understanding spatial variability of water quality in estuary systems is important for making monitoring decisions and designing sampling strategies. In San Francisco Bay, the largest estuary system on the west coast of North America, tracking the concentration of suspended materials in water is largely limited to point measurements with the assumption that each point is representative of its surrounding area. Strategies using remote sensing can expand monitoring efforts and provide a more complete view of spatial patterns and variability. In this study, we (1) quantify spatial variability in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations at different spatial scales to contextualize current in-water point sampling and (2) demonstrate the potential of satellite and shipboard remote sensing to supplement current monitoring methods in San Francisco Bay. We collected radiometric data from the bow of a research vessel on three dates in 2019 corresponding to satellite overpasses by Sentinel-2, and used established algorithms to retrieve SPM concentrations. These more spatially comprehensive data identified features that are not picked up by current point sampling. This prompted us to examine how much variability exists at spatial scales between 20 m and 10 km in San Francisco Bay using 10 m resolution Sentinel-2 imagery. We found 23–80% variability in SPM at the 5 km scale (the scale at which point sampling occurs), demonstrating the risk in assuming limited point sampling is representative of a 5 km area. In addition, current monitoring takes place along a transect within the Bay’s main shipping channel, which we show underestimates the spatial variance of the full bay. Our results suggest that spatial structure and spatial variability in the Bay change seasonally based on freshwater inflow to the Bay, tidal state, and wind speed. We recommend monitoring programs take this into account when designing sampling strategies, and that end-users account for the inherent spatial uncertainty associated with the resolution at which data are collected. This analysis also highlights the applicability of remotely sensed data to augment traditional sampling strategies. In sum, this study presents ways to supplement water quality monitoring using remote sensing, and uses satellite imagery to make recommendations for future sampling strategies.

2021 ◽  
James C. Simeon ◽  
Hugo Washington Cahueñas Muñoz ◽  
Itzel Barrera De Diego ◽  
Vania Ramírez Camacho

This Globally Networking Learning (GNL) experience was brought together in August 2020 per the initiative of the York International’s GNL Initiative at York University and involved York University (Canada), Universidad San Francisco de Quito (Ecuador) and Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico). The courses of the three institutions were very different but did share the main axis of talking about diverse international people having to adapt to an unknown international context. This GNL course came together several months after the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic “lockdown” of higher educational institutions across the globe. Students enjoyed the opportunity to work with students from other countries and cultures on the subject matter cited above, that is international by its very nature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 88 (S1) ◽  
pp. S39-S48
Erin C. Wilson ◽  
Caitlin M. Turner ◽  
Christina Sanz-Rodriguez ◽  
Sean Arayasirikul ◽  
Jayne Gagliano ◽  

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