structured light
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Nanophotonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Shuhui Li ◽  
Yifan Zhao ◽  
Jing Du ◽  

Abstract Orbital angular momentum (OAM), which describes tailoring the spatial physical dimension of light waves into a helical phase structure, has given rise to many applications in optical manipulation, microscopy, imaging, metrology, sensing, quantum science, and optical communications. Light beams carrying OAM feature two distinct characteristics, i.e., inherent orthogonality and unbounded states in principle, which are suitable for capacity scaling of optical communications. In this paper, we give an overview of OAM and beyond in free-space optical communications. The fundamentals of OAM, concept of optical communications using OAM, OAM modulation (OAM modulation based on spatial light modulator, high-speed OAM modulation, spatial array modulation), OAM multiplexing (spectrally efficient, high capacity, long distance), OAM multicasting (adaptive multicasting, N-dimensional multicasting), OAM communications in turbulence (adaptive optics, digital signal processing, auto-alignment system), structured light communications beyond OAM (Bessel beams, Airy beams, vector beams), diverse and robust communications using OAM and beyond (multiple scenes, turbulence-resilient communications, intelligent communications) are comprehensively reviewed. The prospects and challenges of optical communications using OAM and beyond are also discussed at the end. In the future, there will be more opportunities in exploiting extensive advanced applications from OAM beams to more general structured light.

Photonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Ruediger Grunwald ◽  
Mathias Jurke ◽  
Martin Bock ◽  
Max Liebmann ◽  
Binal Poyyathuruthy Bruno ◽  

Combining the specific advantages of high-resolution liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs) and reflective or refractive micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) presents new prospects for the generation of structured light fields. In particular, adaptive self-apodization schemes can significantly reduce diffraction by low-loss spatial filtering. The concept enables one to realize low-dispersion shaping of nondiffracting femtosecond wavepackets and to temporally switch, modulate or deflect spatially structured beams. Adaptive diffraction management by structured illumination is demonstrated for piezo-based and thermally actuated axicons, spiral phase plates (SPPs) and Fresnel bi-mirrors. Improved non-collinear autocorrelation with angular-tunable Fresnel-bi-mirrors via self-apodized illumination and phase contrast of an SLM is proposed. An extension of the recently introduced nondiffractive Talbot effect to a tunable configuration by combining an SLM and a fluid lens is reported. Experimental results for hexagonal as well as orthogonal array beams are presented.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 560
Sofia Zahia ◽  
Begonya Garcia-Zapirain ◽  
Jon Anakabe ◽  
Joan Ander ◽  
Oscar Jossa Bastidas ◽  

This papers presents a comparative study of three different 3D scanning modalities to acquire 3D meshes of stoma barrier rings from ostomized patients. Computerized Tomography and Structured light scanning methods were the digitization technologies studied in this research. Among the Structured Light systems, the Go!Scan 20 and the Structure Sensor were chosen as the handheld 3D scanners. Nineteen ostomized patients took part in this study, starting from the 3D scans acquisition until the printed ostomy patches validation. 3D mesh processing, mesh generation and 3D mesh comparison was carried out using commercial softwares. The results of the presented study show that the Structure Sensor, which is the low cost structured light 3D sensor, has a great potential for such applications. This study also discusses the benefits and reliability of low-cost structured light systems.

2022 ◽  
Giorgio D‘Ettorre ◽  
Marco Farronato ◽  
Ettore Candida ◽  
Vincenzo Quinzi ◽  
Cristina Grippaudo

ABSTRACT Objectives To compare three-dimensional facial scans obtained by stereophotogrammetry with two different applications for smartphone supporting the TrueDepth system, a structured light technology. Materials and Methods Facial scans of 40 different subjects were acquired with three different systems. The 3dMDtrio Stereophotogrammetry System (3dMD, Atlanta, Ga) was compared with a smartphone (iPhone Xs; Apple, Cupertino, Calif) equipped with the Bellus3D Face Application (version 1.6.11; Bellus3D Inc, Campbell, Calif) or Capture (version 1.2.5; Standard Cyborg Inc, San Francisco, Calif). Times of image acquisition and elaboration were recorded. The surface-to-surface deviation and the distance between 18 landmarks from 3dMD reference images to those acquired with Bellus3D or Capture were measured. Results Capturing and processing times with the smartphone applications were considerably longer than with the 3dMD system. The surface-to-surface deviation analysis between the Bellus3D and 3dMD showed an overlap percentage of 80.01% ± 5.92% and 56.62% ± 7.65% within the ranges of 1 mm and 0.5 mm discrepancy, respectively. Images from Capture showed an overlap percentage of 81.40% ± 9.59% and 56.45% ± 11.62% within the ranges of 1 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions The face image acquisition with the 3dMD device is fast and accurate, but bulky and expensive. The new smartphone applications combined with the TrueDepth sensors show promising results. They need more accuracy from the operator and more compliance from the patient because of the increased acquisition time. Their greatest advantages are related to cost and portability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 588
Jun Wang ◽  
Xuexing Li

Single circular targets are widely used as calibration objects during line-structured light three-dimensional (3D) measurements because they are versatile and easy to manufacture. This paper proposes a new calibration method for line-structured light 3D measurements based on a single circular target. First, the target is placed in several positions and illuminated by a light beam emitted from a laser projector. A camera captures the resulting images and extracts an elliptic fitting profile of the target and the laser stripe. Second, an elliptical cone equation defined by the elliptic fitting profile and optical center of the camera is established based on the projective geometry. By combining the obtained elliptical cone and the known diameter of the circular target, two possible positions and orientations of the circular target are determined and two groups of 3D intersection points between the light plane and the circular target are identified. Finally, the correct group of 3D intersection points is filtered and the light plane is progressively fitted. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified both theoretically and experimentally. The obtained results indicate that a calibration accuracy of 0.05 mm can be achieved for an 80 mm × 80 mm planar target.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Kyosuke Sakai ◽  
Hiroki Kitajima ◽  
Keiji Sasaki

Abstract Plasmonic nanostructures have considerable applicability in light–matter interactions owing to their capacity for strong field confinement and enhancement. Nanogap structures allow us to tailor electric field distributions at the nanoscale, bridging the differences in size and shape of atomic and light structures. In this study, we demonstrated that a plasmonic tetramer structure can squeeze structured light into a nanoscale area, in which a strong field gradient allows access to forbidden transitions. Numerical simulations showed that the gold tetramer structure on a glass substrate possesses a plasmonic eigenmode, which forms structured light with a quadrupole profile in the nanogap region at the center of the tetramer. The top–down technique employed using electron-beam lithography allows us to produce a gap size of approximately 50 nm, which supports plasmonic resonance in the near-infrared regime. In addition, we demonstrated an array architecture in which a collective lattice resonance enhances the intensity of the quadrupole field in multiple lattice units. This study highlights the possibility of accessing multipolar transitions in a combined system of structured light and plasmonic nanostructures. Our findings may lead to new platforms for spectroscopy, sensing, and light sources that take advantage of the full electronic spectrum of an emitter.

2022 ◽  
Haiyun Guo ◽  
Haowen Zhou ◽  
Partha Banerjee

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