epstein barr virus
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Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kjetil Bjornevik ◽  
Marianna Cortese ◽  
Brian C. Healy ◽  
Jens Kuhle ◽  
Michael J. Mina ◽  

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of unknown etiology. We tested the hypothesis that MS is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a cohort comprising more than 10 million young adults on active duty in the US military, 955 of whom were diagnosed with MS during their period of service. Risk of MS increased 32-fold after infection with EBV but was not increased after infection with other viruses, including the similarly transmitted cytomegalovirus. Serum levels of neurofilament light chain, a biomarker of neuroaxonal degeneration, increased only after EBV seroconversion. These findings cannot be explained by any known risk factor for MS and suggest EBV as the leading cause of MS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wei Xia ◽  
Honglin Chen ◽  
Yiwei Feng ◽  
Nan Shi ◽  
Zongjian Huang ◽  

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that latently infects approximately 95% of adults and is associated with a spectrum of human diseases including Infectious Mononucleosis and a variety of malignancies. However, understanding the pathogenesis, vaccines and antiviral drugs for EBV-associated disease has been hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. Tree shrew is a novel laboratory animal with a close phylogenetic relationship to primates, which is a critical advantage for many animal models for human disease, especially viral infections. Herein, we first identified the key residues in the CR2 receptor that bind the gp350 protein and facilitate viral entry. We found that tree shrew shares 100% sequence identity with humans in these residues, which is much higher than rabbits (50%) and rats (25%). In vitro analysis showed that B lymphocytes of tree shrews are susceptible to EBV infection and replication, as well as EBV-enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, results of in vivo experiments show that EBV infection in tree shrews resembles EBV infection in humans. The infected animals exhibited transient fever and loss of weight accompanied by neutropenia and high viremia levels during the acute phase of the viral infection. Thereafter, tree shrews acted as asymptomatic carriers of the virus in most cases that EBV-related protein could be detected in blood and tissues. However, a resurgence of EBV infection occurred at 49 dpi. Nanopore transcriptomic sequencing of peripheral blood in EBV-infected animals revealed the dynamic changes in biological processes occurring during EBV primary infection. Importantly, we find that neutrophil function was impaired in tree shrew model as well as human Infectious Mononucleosis datasets (GSE85599 and GSE45918). In addition, retrospective case reviews suggested that neutropenia may play an important role in EBV escaping host innate immune response, leading to long-term latent infection. Our findings demonstrated that tree shrew is a suitable animal model to evaluate the mechanisms of EBV infection, and for developing vaccines and therapeutic drugs against EBV.

2022 ◽  
David G. Meckes ◽  
Monica Abou Harb ◽  
Li Sun

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) circulate throughout the body and carry cargo that can be conferred to proximal or distant cells, making them major delivery vehicles for cellular communication. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infected cells release EVs that contain viral proteins such as the major viral oncogene, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). LMP1 has been shown to regulate the cellular gene expression of programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1). PD-L1, a protein that suppresses the immune system by binding to PD-1, (a receptor found on cytotoxic T cells). PD-L1 has been recently found to be packaged into small EVs contributing to immune evasion of lung cancer cells. Recent studies establish that MVs are shed in very large amounts by tumor cells, and that elevated levels of MVs correlate to disease metastasis and cancers being more aggressive. Here, we demonstrate PD-L1 enrichment in MVs released from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and an important function of EBV LMP1 in regulating PD-L1 levels in MVs. These PD-L1+ MVs containing LMP1 likely contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in EBV-associated cancers.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 133-133
Jocelyn Kaiser

Vaccines under development against Epstein-Barr virus might prevent MS

2022 ◽  
Amélie Bourhis ◽  
Valérie Roussel‐Robert ◽  
Jean‐Paul Viard ◽  
Matthieu Peyre ◽  
Franck Bielle

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Adelaide Ohui Fierti ◽  
Michael Bright Yakass ◽  
Ernest Adjei Okertchiri ◽  
Samuel Mawuli Adadey ◽  
Osbourne Quaye

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ubiquitous and carried by approximately 90% of the world’s adult population. Several mechanisms and pathways have been proposed as to how EBV facilitates the pathogenesis and progression of malignancies, such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancers, the majority of which have been linked to viral proteins that are expressed upon infection including latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens (EBNAs). EBV expresses microRNAs that facilitate the progression of some cancers. Mostly, EBV induces epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes, degradation of tumor suppressor mRNA transcripts, post-translational modification, and inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which EBV modulates different tumor suppressors at the molecular and cellular levels in associated cancers. Briefly, EBV gene products upregulate DNA methylases to induce epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes via hypermethylation. MicroRNAs expressed by EBV are also involved in the direct targeting of tumor suppressor genes for degradation, and other EBV gene products directly bind to tumor suppressor proteins to inactivate them. All these processes result in downregulation and impaired function of tumor suppressors, ultimately promoting malignances.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Wanrui Lv ◽  
Ke Cheng ◽  
Xiaofen Li ◽  
Lusi Feng ◽  
Hancong Li ◽  

Some pertinent studies have demonstrated that Epstein–Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) patients showed a favorable clinical outcome to immunotherapy and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive status might be a potential biomarker for immunotherapy in gastric cancer (GC). However, knowledge of given exposure to EBVaGC to the first-line immunotherapy is largely inadequate. Moreover, whether camrelizumab can be as effective as other PD-1 inhibitors in the treatment of advanced EBVaGC has not been reported. We report a case of advanced EBVaGC patient with a positive expression of PD-L1, enriched PD-L1+CD68+macrophages, and high TMB who had a long-term partial response and manageable toxicity to the combined approach of camrelizumab (a novel PD-1 inhibitor) and oxaliplatin plus oral S-1 (SOX). As the first-line treatment of advanced EBVaGC patients, camrelizumab combined with SOX regimen may provide a novel combined approach with favorable response and manageable safety. Combination of multiple biomarkers could have a higher effective predictive capacity to immunotherapy. Integrated treatment (chemo-immunotherapy and radiotherapy) might be the optimal strategy for patients with oligometastasis. It deserves prospective research to further validate the efficacy.

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