interferon beta
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2022 ◽  
Vol 58 ◽  
pp. 103455
Giorgia Teresa Maniscalco ◽  
Valentino Manzo ◽  
Anne Lise Ferrara ◽  
Alessandro Perrella ◽  
Mariaelena Di Battista ◽  

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Cristina-Florentina Plesa ◽  
Diana Maria Chitimus ◽  
Carmen Adella Sirbu ◽  
Monica Marilena Țânțu ◽  
Minerva Claudia Ghinescu ◽  

Background: Secondary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) due to interferon beta-1a intramuscular (im) treatment is an uncommon adverse effect with only a few cases in multiple sclerosis patients reported worldwide. TTP together with haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are classic forms of thrombotic microangiopathy, characterized by small-vessel platelet micro-thrombi that manifest clinically in a similar manner. Most common signs and symptoms include bruises and ecchymosis, neurologic symptoms and renal impairment. Interferon beta-1a represents one of the first-line therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis due to its accessibility and efficacy. Case presentation: A 36-year-old woman who was previously diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis had received weekly intramuscular injections with beta-interferon-1a (Avonex 30 mcg). After 9 months of treatment, she presented bruises and ecchymosis on her limbs and torso, epistaxis, gingival bleeding aggravated within 48 h and a persistent headache that was non-responsive to common analgesics. Haematology tests revealed typical results for thrombotic microangiopathy, including severe thrombocytopenia (4000/mm3) and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia with frequent schistocytes on the peripheral blood smear. Once the beta-interferon administration was ceased and upon the initiation of methylprednisolone, the symptoms remitted. Conclusions: In this case study, we portrayed the particular association between the remission phase of multiple sclerosis and the violent onset of interferon-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 030006052110733
Sergej M. Ostojic ◽  
Jelena Ostojic ◽  
Dragana Zanini ◽  
Tatjana Jezdimirovic ◽  
Valdemar Stajer

Acute secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is characterized by escalating neurological disability, with limited disease-modifying therapeutic options. A 48-year-old woman with acute SPMS being treated with interferon beta-1a and oral corticosteroids presented as a clinical outpatient with no disease-modifying effects after treatment. A decision was made to treat her with a combination of guanidinoacetate and creatine for 21 days. She had made clinical progress at follow-up, with the intensity of fatigue dropping from severe to mild. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed increased brain choline, creatine, N-acetylaspartate, and glutathione. Patients with SPMS may benefit from guanidinoacetate–creatine treatment in terms of patient- and clinician-reported outcomes; this requires additional study.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1915
Vladislav S. Rybchenko ◽  
Anna A. Panina ◽  
Teimur K. Aliev ◽  
Olga N. Solopova ◽  
Dmitry S. Balabashin ◽  

The main aim of our work was to create a full-length bispecific antibody (BsAb) as a vehicle for the targeted delivery of interferon-beta (IFN-β) to ErbB2+ tumor cells in the form of non-covalent complex of BsAb and IFN-β. Such a construct is a CrossMab-type BsAb, consisting of an ErbB2-recognizing trastuzumab moiety, a part of chimeric antibody to IFN-β, and human IgG1 Fc domain carrying knob-into-hole amino acid substitutions necessary for the proper assembly of bispecific molecules. The IFN-β- recognizing arm of BsAb not only forms a complex with the cytokine but neutralizes its activity, thus providing a mechanism to avoid the side effects of the systemic action of IFN-β by blocking IFN-β Interaction with cell receptors in the process of cytokine delivery to tumor sites. Enzyme sandwich immunoassay confirmed the ability of BsAb to bind to human IFN-β comparable to that of the parental chimeric mAb. The BsAb binds to the recombinant ErbB2 receptor, as well as to lysates of ErbB2+ tumor cell lines. The inhibition of the antiproliferative effect of IFN-β by BsAb (IC50 = 49,3 µg/mL) was demonstrated on the HT29 cell line. It can be proposed that the BsAb obtained can serve as a component of the immunocytokine complex for the delivery of IFN-β to ErbB2-associated tumor cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Fatme Seval Ismail ◽  
Franco Corvace ◽  
Pedro M. Faustmann ◽  
Timo Jendrik Faustmann

Astrocytes and microglia are the main cell population besides neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes support the neuronal network via maintenance of transmitter and ion homeostasis. They are part of the tripartite synapse, composed of pre- and postsynaptic neurons and perisynaptic astrocytic processes as a functional unit. There is an increasing evidence that astroglia are involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disorders such as epilepsy, autoimmune CNS diseases or neuropsychiatric disorders, especially with regard to glia-mediated inflammation. In addition to astrocytes, investigations on microglial cells, the main immune cells of the CNS, offer a whole network approach leading to better understanding of non-neuronal cells and their pathological role in CNS diseases and treatment. An in vitro astrocyte-microglia co-culture model of inflammation was developed by Faustmann et al. (2003), which allows to study the endogenous inflammatory reaction and the cytokine expression under drugs in a differentiated manner. Commonly used antiepileptic drugs (e.g., levetiracetam, valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and gabapentin), immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., dexamethasone and interferon-beta), hormones and psychotropic drugs (e.g., venlafaxine) were already investigated, contributing to better understanding mechanisms of actions of CNS drugs and their pro- or anti-inflammatory properties concerning glial cells. Furthermore, the effects of drugs on glial cell viability, proliferation and astrocytic network were demonstrated. The in vitro astrocyte-microglia co-culture model of inflammation proved to be suitable as unique in vitro model for pharmacological investigations on astrocytes and microglia with future potential (e.g., cancer drugs, antidementia drugs, and toxicologic studies).

mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Emily R. Albright ◽  
Clayton K. Mickelson ◽  
Robert F. Kalejta

While a cellular restriction versus viral countermeasure arms race between innate immunity and viral latency is expected, few examples have been documented. Our identification of the first HCMV latency protein that inactivates the cGAS/STING/TBK1 innate immune pathway opens the door to understanding how innate immunity, or its neutralization, impacts long-term persistence by HCMV and other latent viruses.

2021 ◽  
Andreia Monteiro ◽  
Ana Mafalda Fonseca ◽  
Artur Paiva

Multiple sclerosis is a relapsing and eventually progressive disorder of the central nervous system that continues to challenge researchers who try to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and prevent its progression. Interferon-beta is the most widely prescribed treatment for MS. Peripheral blood seems to mirror the immunological disturbances that underlie MS, which could represent the migration patterns between periphery and other tissues according to the clinical phase of the disease. Based on this assumption, several studies point to significant alterations in peripheral blood homeostasis of different subpopulations of T cells, like γδ T cells or Th1, Th2 and Th17 functional subsets; of B cells subpopulations; and of innate cells like monocytes and dendritic cells. The main goal of this chapter is to make an in-depth review of the major findings described in the literature that correlate specific alterations on different leukocytes subpopulations with disease status, and which therefore have the potential to constitute a peripheral biomarker of disease progression.

Shay Menascu ◽  
Roy Aloni ◽  
Mark Dolev ◽  
David Magalashvili ◽  
Keren Gutman ◽  

Abstract Background Prevention of cognitive decline in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is of major importance. We explored the effect of a 6 months computerized game training program on cognitive performance in MS patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods This was a single-center, randomized prospective study. We enrolled in this study 100 eligible MS patients treated with Interferon-beta-1a (Rebif). All had mild cognitive impairment in either executive function or information processing speed. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either use the cognitive games platform by HappyNeuron (HN) or receive no intervention. Executive function and information processing speed scores were measured at 3 and 6 months from baseline to evaluate the effect of game training on cognitive scores. Results In both executive function and information processing speed, the game Training group showed significant improvement after 3 and 6 months. The Non-Training group showed mild deterioration in both domains at 3 months, and further deterioration that became significant at 6 months in executive function. Furthermore, at 6 months, the percent of patients in the Training group that improved or remained stable in both cognitive domains was significantly higher compared to the Non-Training group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cognitive game training has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance in MS patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment. While further evaluation is required to assess the longevity of that effect, we nonetheless recommend to MS patients to be engaged in cognitive gaming practice as part of a holistic approach to treating their condition.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Leila Karimi ◽  
Nahid Eskandari ◽  
Vahid Shaygannejad

<b><i>Background:</i></b> We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of interferon-beta (IFN-β) on hsa-miR29b-3p and hsa-miR326 in isolated T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells expressed by relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients before and after 1 year of treatment with IFN-β. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The study was done on 19 RRMS patients pre- and posttreatment with IFN-β to evaluate the frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells by flow cytometry. The expression level of hsa-miR-29b-3p and hsa-miR-326 in isolated Th1 and Th17 cells was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was also used to measure the plasma levels of I interferon -gamma and interleukin (IL)-17A. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Th17 cells and plasma levels of IL-17A decreased in RRMS patients after IFN-β therapy but hsa-miR-29b-3p and hsa-miR-326 expression had no significant change in treated RRMS patients versus baseline. <i>MxA</i> gene expression was significantly induced upon IFN-β therapy in patients with RRMS. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> IFN-β therapy is more effective on Th17 than Th1, but it does not reform altered expression of hsa-miR-326 and hsa-miR-29b-3p in Th17 and Th1, respectively.

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