entanglement measure
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2021 ◽  
Xiao-Fang Liu ◽  
Dong-Fen Li ◽  
Yun-Dan Zheng ◽  
Xiao-Long Yang ◽  
Jie Zhou ◽  

Abstract Quantum controlled teleportation is the transmission of the quantum state under the supervision of a third party. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental combination of an arbitrary two-qubit quantum controlled teleportation scheme. In the scheme, the sender Alice only needs to perform two Bell state measurements, and the receiver Bob can perform the appropriate unitary operation to reconstruct arbitrary two-qubit states under the control of the supervisor Charlie. We verified the operation process of the scheme on the IBM Quantum Experience platform and further checked the accuracy of the transmitted quantum state by performing quantum state tomography. Meanwhile, good fidelity is obtained by calculating the theoretical density matrix and the experimental density matrix. We also introduced a sequence of photonic states to analyze the possible intercept-replace-resend, intercept-measure-resend, and entanglement-measure-resend attacks on this scheme. The results proved that our scheme is highly secure.

Yi Huang ◽  
Huapeng Yu ◽  
Fang Miao ◽  
Tianyong Han ◽  
Xiujun Zhang

In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for describing entanglement quantitatively and qualitatively for multipartite qudit states in terms of rows or columns of coefficient matrices. More specifically, we propose an entanglement measure and separability criteria based on rows or columns of coefficient matrices. This entanglement measure has an explicit mathematical expression by means of exterior products of all pairs of rows or columns in coefficient matrices. It is introduced via our result that the [Formula: see text]-concurrence coincides with the entanglement measure based on two-by-two minors of coefficient matrices. Depending on our entanglement measure, we obtain the separability criteria and maximal entanglement criteria in terms of rows or columns of coefficient matrices. Our conclusions show that just like every two-by-two minor in a coefficient matrix of a multipartite pure state, every pair of rows or columns can also exhibit its entanglement properties, and thus can be viewed as its smallest entanglement contribution unit too. The great merit of our entanglement measure and separability criteria is two-fold. First, they are very practical and convenient for computation compared to other methods. Second, they have clear geometric interpretations.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Ibrahim Issah ◽  
Mohsin Habib ◽  
Humeyra Caglayan

Abstract Preservation of an entangled state in a quantum system is one of the major goals in quantum technological applications. However, entanglement can be quickly lost into dissipation when the effective interaction among the qubits becomes smaller compared to the noise-injection from the environment. Thus, a medium that can sustain the entanglement of distantly spaced qubits is essential for practical implementations. This work introduces the fabrication of a rolled-up zero-index waveguide which can serve as a unique reservoir for the long-range qubit–qubit entanglement. We also present the numerical evaluation of the concurrence (entanglement measure) via Ansys Lumerical FDTD simulations using the parameters determined experimentally. The calculations demonstrate the feasibility and supremacy of the experimental method. We develop and fabricate this novel structure using cost-effective self-rolling techniques. The results of this study redefine the range of light-matter interactions and show the potential of the rolled-up zero-index waveguides for various classical and quantum applications such as quantum communication, quantum information processing, and superradiance.

Asad Ali ◽  
Mustansar N Nadeem ◽  
A.H Toor ◽  
Junaid Ulhaq ◽  
Shah Ahad

We study the validity of quantum Fisher information (QFI) as a faithful quantum coherence and correlation quantier by drawing a comparison with subsystem's coherence measure, rst-order coherence (FOC) and the entanglement measure, Negativity to study the behavior of thermal quantum coherence and correlations in two qubit Heisenberg XXX model, placed in independently controllable magnetic eld by systematically varying the coupling parameter, magnetic eld and bath temperature for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic case. After carefully observing the prole of quantum coherence and correlation measures, we propose an inequality relations which shows that there may exist a quantitative relationship between QFI, Negativity and FOC in which, the equality exists at zero temperature. We identify QFI to be a more useful coherence quantier, as it quanties coherence of individual subsystems and correlations among the subsystems. On the other hand, FOC identies coherence present in the individual subsystems only. A reciprocal relationship between Negativity and FOC is also observed in dierent cases. We also observe the existence of entanglement in ferromagnetic case, in contrast to simple Heisenberg XXX model in uniform magnetic eld. We show that in the ferromagnetic case, a very small inhomogeneity in magnetic eld is capable of producing large values of thermal entanglement. This shows that the behavior of entanglement in the ferromagnetic Heisenberg system is highly unstable against inhomogeneity of magnetic elds, which is inevitably present in any solid state realization of qubits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
Antoine Neven ◽  
David Kenworthy Gunn ◽  
Martin Hebenstreit ◽  
Barbara Kraus

Understanding multipartite entanglement is vital, as it underpins a wide range of phenomena across physics. The study of transformations of states via Local Operations assisted by Classical Communication (LOCC) allows one to quantitatively analyse entanglement, as it induces a partial order in the Hilbert space. However, it has been shown that, for systems with fixed local dimensions, this order is generically trivial, which prevents relating multipartite states to each other with respect to any entanglement measure. In order to obtain a non-trivial partial ordering, we study a physically motivated extension of LOCC: multi-state LOCC. Here, one considers simultaneous LOCC transformations acting on a finite number of entangled pure states. We study both multipartite and bipartite multi-state transformations. In the multipartite case, we demonstrate that one can change the stochastic LOCC (SLOCC) class of the individual initial states by only applying Local Unitaries (LUs). We show that, by transferring entanglement from one state to the other, one can perform state conversions not possible in the single copy case; provide examples of multipartite entanglement catalysis; and demonstrate improved probabilistic protocols. In the bipartite case, we identify numerous non-trivial LU transformations and show that the source entanglement is not additive. These results demonstrate that multi-state LOCC has a much richer landscape than single-state LOCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 48-52
Mohammed Zidan ◽  
Mahmoud Abdel-Aty ◽  

The algorithm that solves a generalized form of the Deutsch- Jozsa problem was proposed. This algorithm uses the degree of entanglement computing model to classify an arbitrary Oracle Uf to one of the 2n classes. In this paper, we will analyze this algorithm based on the degree of entanglement.

Quanta ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 22-36
George Androulakis ◽  
Ryan McGaha

Gudder, in a recent paper, defined a candidate entanglement measure which is called the entanglement number. The entanglement number is first defined on pure states and then it extends to mixed states by the convex roof construction. In Gudder's article it was left as an open problem to show that Optimal Pure State Ensembles (OPSE) exist for the convex roof extension of the entanglement number from pure to mixed states. We answer Gudder's question in the affirmative, and therefore we obtain that the entanglement number vanishes only on the separable states. More generally we show that OPSE exist for the convex roof extension of any function that is norm continuous on the pure states of a finite dimensional Hilbert space. Further we prove that the entanglement number is an LOCC monotone, (and thus an entanglement measure), by using a criterion that was developed by Vidal in 2000. We present a simplified proof of Vidal's result where moreover we use an interesting point of view of tree representations for LOCC communications. Lastly, we generalize Gudder's entanglement number by producing a monotonic family of entanglement measures which converge in a natural way to the entropy of entanglement.Quanta 2020; 9: 22–36.

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