quantum algorithm
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Author(s):  
Almudena Carrera Vazquez ◽  
Ralf Hiptmair ◽  
Stefan Woerner

We present a quantum algorithm to solve systems of linear equations of the form Ax = b , where A is a tridiagonal Toeplitz matrix and b results from discretizing an analytic function, with a circuit complexity of O (1/√ε, poly (log κ, log N )), where N denotes the number of equations, ε is the accuracy, and κ the condition number. The repeat-until-success algorithm has to be run O (κ/(1-ε)) times to succeed, leveraging amplitude amplification, and needs to be sampled O (1/ε 2 ) times. Thus, the algorithm achieves an exponential improvement with respect to N over classical methods. In particular, we present efficient oracles for state preparation, Hamiltonian simulation, and a set of observables together with the corresponding error and complexity analyses. As the main result of this work, we show how to use Richardson extrapolation to enhance Hamiltonian simulation, resulting in an implementation of Quantum Phase Estimation (QPE) within the algorithm with 1/√ε circuits that can be run in parallel each with circuit complexity 1/√ ε instead of 1/ε. Furthermore, we analyze necessary conditions for the overall algorithm to achieve an exponential speedup compared to classical methods. Our approach is not limited to the considered setting and can be applied to more general problems where Hamiltonian simulation is approximated via product formulae, although our theoretical results would need to be extended accordingly. All the procedures presented are implemented with Qiskit and tested for small systems using classical simulation as well as using real quantum devices available through the IBM Quantum Experience.


Author(s):  
Daniel Braun ◽  
Ronny Müller

Abstract Quantum algorithms profit from the interference of quantum states in an exponentially large Hilbert space and the fact that unitary transformations on that Hilbert space can be broken down to universal gates that act only on one or two qubits at the same time. The former aspect renders the direct classical simulation of quantum algorithms difficult. Here we introduce higher-order partial derivatives of a probability distribution of particle positions as a new object that shares these basic properties of quantum mechanical states needed for a quantum algorithm. Discretization of the positions allows one to represent the quantum mechanical state of $\nb$ qubits by $2(\nb+1)$ classical stochastic bits. Based on this, we demonstrate many-particle interference and representation of pure entangled quantum states via derivatives of probability distributions and find the universal set of stochastic maps that correspond to the quantum gates in a universal gate set. We prove that the propagation via the stochastic map built from those universal stochastic maps reproduces up to a prefactor exactly the evolution of the quantum mechanical state with the corresponding quantum algorithm, leading to an automated translation of a quantum algorithm to a stochastic classical algorithm. We implement several well-known quantum algorithms, analyse the scaling of the needed number of realizations with the number of qubits, and highlight the role of destructive interference for the cost of the emulation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kyungtaek Jun

Abstract With the advent of quantum computers, many quantum computing algorithms are being developed. Solving linear systems is one of the most fundamental problems in almost all of science and engineering. Harrow-Hassidim-Lloyd algorithm, a monumental quantum algorithm for solving linear systems on the gate model quantum computers, was invented and several advanced variations have been developed. For a given square matrix A∈R(n×n) and a vector b∈R(n), we will find unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) models for a vector x∈R(n) that satisfies Ax=b. To formulate QUBO models for a linear system solving problem, we make use of a linear least-square problem with binary representation of the solution. We validate those QUBO models on the D-Wave system and discuss the results. For a simple system, We provide a python code to calculate the matrix characterizing the relationship between the variables and to print the test code that can be used directly in D-Wave system.


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 0
Author(s):  
Suman Dutta ◽  
Subhamoy Maitra ◽  
Chandra Sekhar Mukherjee

<p style='text-indent:20px;'>Here we revisit the quantum algorithms for obtaining Forrelation [Aaronson et al., 2015] values to evaluate some of the well-known cryptographically significant spectra of Boolean functions, namely the Walsh spectrum, the cross-correlation spectrum, and the autocorrelation spectrum. We introduce the existing 2-fold Forrelation formulation with bent duality-based promise problems as desirable instantiations. Next, we concentrate on the 3-fold version through two approaches. First, we judiciously set up some of the functions in 3-fold Forrelation so that given oracle access, one can sample from the Walsh Spectrum of <inline-formula><tex-math id="M1">\begin{document}$ f $\end{document}</tex-math></inline-formula>. Using this, we obtain improved results than what one can achieve by exploiting the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. In turn, it has implications in resiliency checking. Furthermore, we use a similar idea to obtain a technique in estimating the cross-correlation (and thus autocorrelation) value at any point, improving upon the existing algorithms. Finally, we tweak the quantum algorithm with the superposition of linear functions to obtain a cross-correlation sampling technique. This is the first cross-correlation sampling algorithm with constant query complexity to the best of our knowledge. This also provides a strategy to check if two functions are uncorrelated of degree <inline-formula><tex-math id="M2">\begin{document}$ m $\end{document}</tex-math></inline-formula>. We further modify this using Dicke states so that the time complexity reduces, particularly for constant values of <inline-formula><tex-math id="M3">\begin{document}$ m $\end{document}</tex-math></inline-formula>.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Furkan Oz ◽  
Rohit K. S. S. Vuppala ◽  
Kursat Kara ◽  
Frank Gaitan

AbstractComputational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are a vital part of the design process in the aerospace industry. Although reliable CFD results can be obtained with turbulence models, direct numerical simulation of complex bodies in three spatial dimensions (3D) is impracticable due to the massive amount of computational elements. For instance, a 3D direct numerical simulation of a turbulent boundary-layer over the wing of a commercial jetliner that resolves all relevant length scales using a serial CFD solver on a modern digital computer would take approximately 750 million years or roughly 20% of the earth’s age. Over the past 25 years, quantum computers have become the object of great interest worldwide as powerful quantum algorithms have been constructed for several important, computationally challenging problems that provide enormous speed-up over the best-known classical algorithms. In this paper, we adapt a recently introduced quantum algorithm for partial differential equations to Burgers’ equation and develop a quantum CFD solver that determines its solutions. We used our quantum CFD solver to verify the quantum Burgers’ equation algorithm to find the flow solution when a shockwave is and is not present. The quantum simulation results were compared to: (i) an exact analytical solution for a flow without a shockwave; and (ii) the results of a classical CFD solver for flows with and without a shockwave. Excellent agreement was found in both cases, and the error of the quantum CFD solver was comparable to that of the classical CFD solver.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ze-Tong Li ◽  
Fan-Xu Meng ◽  
Xu-Tao Yu ◽  
Zai-Chen Zhang

Quantum ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 609
Author(s):  
Arthur G. Rattew ◽  
Yue Sun ◽  
Pierre Minssen ◽  
Marco Pistoia

The efficient preparation of input distributions is an important problem in obtaining quantum advantage in a wide range of domains. We propose a novel quantum algorithm for the efficient preparation of arbitrary normal distributions in quantum registers. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to leverage the power of Mid-Circuit Measurement and Reuse (MCMR), in a way that is broadly applicable to a range of state-preparation problems. Specifically, our algorithm employs a repeat-until-success scheme, and only requires a constant-bounded number of repetitions in expectation. In the experiments presented, the use of MCMR enables up to a 862.6x reduction in required qubits. Furthermore, the algorithm is provably resistant to both phase-flip and bit-flip errors, leading to a first-of-its-kind empirical demonstration on real quantum hardware, the MCMR-enabled Honeywell System Models H0 and H1-2.


Author(s):  
John S. Van Dyke ◽  
Edwin Barnes ◽  
Sophia Economou ◽  
Rafael I Nepomechie

Abstract The open spin-1/2 XXZ spin chain with diagonal boundary magnetic fields is the paradigmatic example of a quantum integrable model with open boundary conditions. We formulate a quantum algorithm for preparing Bethe states of this model, corresponding to real solutions of the Bethe equations. The algorithm is probabilistic, with a success probability that decreases with the number of down spins. For a Bethe state of L spins with M down spins, which contains a total of (L M) 2M M! terms, the algorithm requires L + M2+ 2M qubits.


Author(s):  
Fan-Xu Meng ◽  
Ze-Tong Li ◽  
Xutao Yu ◽  
Zaichen Zhang

Abstract The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is a well-established method to evaluate the direction of arrival (DOA) of signals. However, the construction and eigen-decomposition of the sample covariance matrix (SCM) are computationally costly for MUSIC in hybrid multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, which limits the application and advancement of the algorithm. In this paper, we present a novel quantum method for MUSIC in hybrid MIMO systems. Our scheme makes the following three contributions. First, the quantum subroutine for constructing the approximate SCM is designed, along with the quantum circuit for the steering vector and a proposal for quantum singular vector transformation. Second, the variational density matrix eigensolver is proposed to determine the signal and noise subspaces utilizing the destructive swap test. As a proof of principle, we conduct two numerical experiments using a quantum simulator. Finally, the quantum labelling procedure is explored to determine the DOA. The proposed quantum method can potentially achieve exponential speedup on certain parameters and polynomial speedup on others under specific moderate circumstances, compared with their classical counterparts.


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