The article under studies deals with the form of Lesya Ukrainka’s poetic works that comprised the verse cycle “Rhythms”. The meaningful unity of the cycle proems has been emphasized by a specifically defined syllable-tonic meter – pentameter iamb, which, however, does not cause the feeling of monotony of the verse form. The purpose of the article is to determine the means, used by the poetess, in order to diversify the structure. The structure of each verse of the cycle is considered separately. The curriculum verse-dialogue “De podilysia vy, holosniyi slova…”, which opens the cycle and develops the theme in the following poems, is extensively analyzed and statistically examined in the aspect of conveying emotions through the verse rhythm. It has been ascertained that the final verses of the cycle (seventh and eighth) differ in the type of the rhythm (“alternated” – “transitive”), the nature of the caesura, the hierarchy of the forms used, the presence or absence of the lines with a different meter, the number of enjambments, and the strophic structure. Thus, despite the fact that the six poems and the second parts of the two polymetric constructions of the cycle “Rhythm” have been written in pentameter iamb, they are far from being similar. Most often, the distinction is in terms of rhythm and syntax. Among the rhythmic means, there prevail the type of the caesura and the forms of the rhythm; then – the percentage of the lines with a different meter, the verses with out-of-scheme stresses and the type of the rhythm; next – the percentage of the stressed feet and the verses with masculine endings. The syntactic means are represented, above all, through enjambments and “sentences-stanzas”, more rarely – through the division into “periods” and anaphors.
The genre heredity concept is articulated on the analysis example of I. Drach’s screen version of the biographical film story “I’m coming to you” (1970), dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Lesya Ukrainka. The film is marked by innovative approach of I. Drach as a scriptwriter to the image of the poetess. Contrary to the tradition of documentary film to interpret her biography in a certain matrix key (as a fighter and revolutionary), Drach tried to identify Lesya Ukrainka primarily as a private individual, as the woman who knew how to sacrifice herself for the sake of love.
Without aiming to show in detail the entire biography of the poetess, the author of the film story chose only a small fragment of her life – four years 1897–1901. In terms of biopic genre heredity, the article observes how this biographical film presents possible ways of processing and contamination of available documentary material (letters, memoirs, reminiscences of contemporaries) and integral creation by Lesya Ukrainka (her poetry, translations, renditions). Hence, the biopic on the basis of multi-genre text material appears as a kind of intertextual plexus. At the same time, the film pays much attention to the feelings, thoughts, creative impulses and state of mind of the heroine. By analogy with the poetics of literary writing, the form of the poetess’ inner monologue was chosen in accordance with the portrait film genre. It is clear that through the prism of Lesya’s life and creative experience the personal attitude of the poet I. Drach emerges towards understanding and reproducing the figure of creative personality in art: the author’ vision logically leads to those biographical episodes that in the existential sense appear the most significant.
The article under studies deals with the creative possibilities of an advertising text within modern arts. It is generally recognized that the main purpose of advertising is to turn a recipient into a consumer. The advertisers achieve this goal through implementing the four consecutive stages of affecting the receptive consciousness: drawing attention, arousing interest, stimulating desire and encouraging action, which requires a perfect form of presentation. For successful achievement of the above results, the advertisers use rational, emotional, logical, psychological and aesthetic means of persuasion all together. Consequently, advertisement, as a peculiar synthetic type of “aestheticized pragmatics”, does not reject the aesthetic constituent. In the course of perceiving an advertising text, there might occur certain teleological deviations: when the aesthetic component of advertising comes out in the receptive consciousness in the first place, the advertising text can acquire new semantic parameters and be transformed into a qualitatively different text. In this way, most advertising slogans are usually considered. Being separated from the original text, they turn into independent messages (such as proverbs, sayings, phraseologisms) and enter the flow of the contemporary communicative space of speech. Other phenomena, generated by the aesthetics of an advertising text, are numerous anecdotes and comedic sketches, which parody plot structures, themes, images and specifics of the speech of advertising texts, as well as act as autonomous genres. The article under discussion regards the generation of a new text as a free game within aesthetic communication, whereby the author (the advertiser) and the recipient (the consumer) become equally successful partners. In addition, the article contains the analysis of certain samples, in which the aesthetics of an advertising text annihilates its immanent utilitarian form and creates an independent fiction text. Thus, the aesthetic component of an advertising text turns into a particular creative motive, a driving force in generating new literary texts.
Based on the methodological proposals of literary anthropology, in particular on the conceptual ideas of C. Levi-Strauss (structural anthropology), J. Ortega y Gasset (“dehumanization of arts”), J.-M. Schaeffer (“the end of human exceptionality”), M. Foucault (the fall of a human being from the humanistic pedestal of culture), the article under studies emphasizes the violation of the anthropological dominant in science fiction, which is very typical of the fantasy genre. Consequently, there arise new principles of constructing personosphere of a literary text. On the example of the novel “City” (1953) by an American science fiction writer Clifford Simak, the article traces the way a human being shifts from the center of personosphere to the “outskirts” of narration, whereas its image acquires fictional parameters. This all happens due to the phenomenon of “anthropocene” (the term by G. Canavan), which implies the harmful consequences of the human reigning over the nature. In addition, the author of the article introduces the notion of “phantasoid’ – a character of the fictional world of fantasy (outlined by the narrator) that functions exceptionally in the imagination of a certain fantastic character and is somehow related to his previous experience. The novel by C. Simak outlines a gradual shift of the anthropological vector: the heterogeneous image of a human turns into a counter-image, whereby particular significance is attached to the change in the attitude towards mankind. In the text, human culture is perceived as something alien, while Simak’s image of a human being ruins the so called imagological stereotype, along with the reader’s receptive expectations. The role of the attractor in the novel is assigned to “antromorphized” and “humanized” creatures (plants, animals, objects, robots, mutants), which indicates the drastic breach with the previous genre tradition, as well as higlights a peculiar polemic connection with classical literary science fiction. This all proves the metamorphic nature of science fiction and its transition into the hyperreal dimensions of fantasy, where different artificial forms of life and mentality can peacefully coexist with each other.
The article analyses the debut historical juvenile novel by the German writer Dorit Linke (b. 1971) “Beyond the Blue Border” (“Jenseits der blauen Grenze”, 2014) in the aspect of the literary, historical and pedagogical potential of the text. The main events take place in the Baltic Sea in August 1989 when youths tried to escape from Rostock to West Germany with flashbacks into their life in the GDR. The connection between the periods of the late 1960s and 1980s is emphasized. It was a time of formation or changing the worldview of the main novel’s characters, which belong to three different generations: 1933 (grandfather), 1968 (parents) and 1989 (teenagers). The title of the book points to a kind of marine locus, representing the key stereotypes about the element of water and the inner state of the heroes. The sea is regarded as a constitutive topos, which not only performs the traditional background function of nature but also turns into an artistic image of a literary text. The narrative from the perspective of a teenage girl makes it possible to explain better to the reader of the appropriate age the motives of the incredible act of their peers and helps to get insight into the everyday life of the “Ossi” (residents of East Germany) in contrast to the “Wessi” (West Germans). In this way, the modern German historical juvenile literature demonstrates the relevance for its recipients, performing the cognitive and didactic functions without aggressive interference in the minds of adolescents.
The study first raised the question of using biblical metaphors in the process of establishing Soviet ideology and creating a cult of the leader of the Soviet people. Authors tested the story “Blizzard” by Georgian writer Shalva Dadiani in the context of Georgian cultural mentality and studied the ideology function of the biblical metaphor “The Pillar of Light” in the discourse of Georgian Soviet prose.
An analysis of the text proved that in Georgian culture, the basic concepts-metaphors of Christian Doctrine were an effective weapon of Soviet propaganda. At Bible the “The Pillar of Fire”, “The Pillar of Cloud” and “The Pillar of Light” are theophany – the manifestations of the presence of the God. The biblical metaphor transformed into an ideology representation of the Soviet Leader and in the text of the Shalva Dadiani this is an allegory of the New Messiah – Stalin.
As a result, with the help of biblical metaphors were formed a new ideological concept (the Soviet leader is the Messiah of the New Doctrine) and the new metaphorical model of Soviet reality.
Thus, by transferring the basic values of the traditional Christian conceptual sphere to the Soviet ideological one, a new ideological concept is created and a new metaphorical model of Soviet reality is formed. This achieved a double goal: the inviolability of the Soviet ideologeme was confirmed on an emotional level, and at the same time the respect and trust in the Church that had been carried for many generations was undermined – it was transferred to the new teaching and its adherents.
The article under studies traces the formula of “general face-hitting” from the poem “The Dream” (“U vsiakoho svoya dolia...”) by Taras Shevchenko in the world’s socio-political and folklore-literary contexts. It analyzes Ivan Franko’s essay “Reasons for Evaluating Taras Shevchenko’s Poetry”, where this catchphrase has been used for the first time, as well as describes some dramatic facts from the life of the court Russian poet Vasily Trediakovsky. Special emphasis has been laid on the concept of supreme violence in the history of dictatorial regimes (on the examples of the works of various genres by foreign authors). In particular, fictional and documentary evidence of characteristic abuse of subordinates during the reign of the Empress Anna Ioannovna, as well as numerous cases of assault by the Russian Tsar Peter I and the Prussian King Frederick William I have been revealed. Some expository episodes that remind of a grotesque scene of a brawl are regarded in the History of the Ruthenians, in oriental parables, in the works by Voltaire, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Herzen, Valentin Pikul, Peter Aleshkovsky, Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak, and others. The relevance of this disgusting phenomenon, inherent in any totalitarian system, has been outlined.
The study refutes the idea that existed in the minds of some Shevchenko era’s cultural figures, about Taras Shevchenko’s lack of education and poor literacy. For this purpose, the history of the poet’s reading interests evolution in the most difficult period of his life, the period of exile (1847–1857) was analyzed. His own direct testimonies (epistolary, diary, memoirs of relatives and acquaintances, etc.) were involved in the analysis. The study clarified how the disgraced artist’s previous habit of reading and the need to do it was established. The main focus was on Shevchenko’s reading behavior in the Orsk Fortress and in the Aral Expedition, in the Novopetrovsk Fortress. It relates to the active search, selection and perception of books, and even to special communication establishing. The study traces persons, who valued such poet’s behavior and stimulated it, also how functional Shevchenko’s current reading turned out to be at that period. Its composition was outlined as Russian, Ukrainian and Polish books, mainly in the field of fiction literature and literary criticism, as well as works on history, culturology, ethnology, natural and other fields of knowledge. Only due to reading and to his own artistic work the artist's spirit was saved from psychological exhaustion. Reading contributed to the intellectualization of his work. Shevchenko as a reader completely realized himself in exile considering special circumstances (loneliness, forced self-centeredness), his reading for the first time was not episodic, but complete, sometimes the leading form of the poet’s creative activity.
Increased interest in everyday life and routine explains a new and relevant perception of the creative agenda of contemporary German writer Wilhelm Genazino (1943-2018), known as “poetizing everyday life”. The article, thus, aims to offer a comprehensive view into the poetics of the German novelist to identify ways in which everyday life is poetized, which is an example of linguistic mastery, narrative skill, and philosophical generalization. A close reading method is used to analyze specific scenes from the novels (An Umbrella for One Day, Happiness in Unhappy Times, The Foolishness of Love, If We Were Animals), in which the characters actively practice the “extended gaze”, theoretically validated in W. Genazino’s essay, to reveal a system of special ties important to their inner world behind the routine situations and worn clothes. The writer believes that in such a way, characters experience an epiphany, which provokes further musing about art and the mystery of everyday life. In this connection, it is established that Genazino’s characters manage to avoid the negative influences of society by distancing from it via self-invented aesthetic processes. They are constantly searching for individual vision. It is also noted that the writer focuses on prolonged disappearance scenes, works with time accumulated in objects, and projects distancing from one’s own self to clothes. The extended gaze which the protagonists use to watch their own portrayals helps them overcome identity crisis and generate art, which promises salvation, through simple observance. It is concluded that W. Genazino talks about the aesthetic link between the subject and object perceived as individual “cultural significance”. It enables the protagonists to discard the routine and enter a space outside the limits they have themselves created. Everyday objects and familiar situations have the capacity to stimulate memories and boost creative perception. Their fleeting nature provides for compensatory narration, which means dropping the inessential and petty and is, consequently, perceived as a productive narration. Everyday reality emerges as something that may be perceived as visible existence, which upon some consideration may reveal unique dimensions and gain particular significance based on intermediary space between what is perceived by the eye and the invisible, actualized by the inner vision. Such reflexive vision transcends the limits of things, transforming them and constituting new reality. Such is the underlying principle that the writer used to recreate everyday life in his works.