The resignation of an Indian Administrative Services Officer named Rani Nagar and its non-acceptance by the state government of Haryana had revived the debate around sexual harassment in India. The reason given by the officer was sexual harassment by a senior and non-action of authorities leading to her feeling threatened for her safety. It highlights the fact that position of women in India is not corresponding to their professional achievements. The mindset of society remains attached to the notion of inferior status of women in general, regardless of their professional status. This paper seeks to delve more into the issue of sexual harassment per se and find the actual root cause that serves as a driving force behind such acts of perpetrator. It is done by using cases, theories and examples of contemporary times.
The complicated driving force at the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tip of the safe-end dissimilar metal-welded joints (DMWJs) in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) is mainly caused by the heterogeneous material mechanical properties. In this research, to accurately evaluate the crack driving force at the SCC in DMWJs, the stress-strain condition, stress triaxiality, and J-integral of the crack tip at different positions are analyzed based on the heterogeneous material properties model. The results indicate that the larger driving force will be provided for the I-type crack when the crack is in the SA508 zone and the interface between the 316L region and base metal. In addition, the heterogeneous material properties inhibit the J-integral of the crack in the 316L region, which has a promoting effect when the crack is in the SA508 zone and weld metal. It provides a new idea for analyzing driving force at the crack tip and safety evaluation of DMWJs in PWRs.
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a powerful instrument to fight pathogens, but may induce collateral damage in the affected tissues. Besides pathogen-derived factors, immune complexes are potent inducers of NET formation. Neutrophils express IgA and IgG specific Fc receptors (FcRs) and therefore respond to complexed IgA and IgG. Especially in the context of autoimmune diseases, IgA and IgG immune complexes have been shown to trigger NET formation, a process that putatively contributes to disease severity. However, it is of question if both antibody classes stimulate neutrophils to the same extent. In this study, we compared the capability of IgA and IgG complexes formed by heat aggregation to induce NET formation. While stimulation of neutrophils with IgA complexes robustly induced NET formation, complexed IgG only marginally increased the amount of NETs compared to the unstimulated control. Mixing IgA with IgG before heat aggregation did not increase the effect of complexed IgA on neutrophils. By contrast, the presence of IgG complexes seemed to disturb neutrophil stimulation by IgA complexes. The capacity of complexed IgG to induce NET formation could not be increased by the addition of autologous serum or the removal of terminal sialic acid in the Fc glycan. Together, our data show that IgA is a much more potent inducer of NET formation than IgG. IgA may thus be the main driving force in (auto)immune complex-mediated NET formation.
Amblyomma americanum L. is an important vector in North America originally described by Linnaeus based on Pehr Kalm’s 1754 report. While Kalm’s ‘Travels into North America’ is well known, his 1754 report remains obscure. Some authors were skeptical that Kalm referred to A. americanum because he encountered them at sites farther north outside of the species’ range. However, the details in 1754 report leave no doubt that Kalm described lone star ticks. In this historical review, we provide support for Kalm’s identification using a modern translation of his 1754 report and other sources. We also delineate distributional changes of lone star ticks from the pre-colonization era to the present and interpret them in the context of large-scale anthropogenic changes in the landscape. In this framework, the lone star tick’s current northward expansion is a recolonization of their former range. Extensive deforestation and extirpation of their principal host species, white-tailed deer, led to A. americanum’s disappearance from the northern parts of its range by the 20th century. Subsequent recolonization by second-growth forest and increases in white-tailed deer populations by the mid-20th century is now allowing A. americanum to reclaim its former range. These changes in the land appear to be the driving force behind A. americanum’s present expansion. Understanding this species’ history and the factors contributing to its current expansion will enable better predictions about its future distribution and potential to transmit human pathogens.
<div class="WordSection1"><p class="abstrak"><em>This study aims to determine the implementation of QRIS as measured by the existence and urgency as a payment digitalization medium to support the Digitalization of MSMEs in the context of Indonesia's economic recovery. This research is a literature study that was analyzed using a qualitative-descriptive approach with secondary data sources originating from journals and reports related to the Digitalization of MSMEs. The results and discussion of this research, that the QRIS launched by Bank Indonesia can help MSME actors adapt to existing conditions. QRIS as a MSME survival strategy is carried with the theme EXCELLENCE (UNiversal, Easy, Profit and Direct). The theme was taken because the use of QRIS is easy and practical, namely by scanning the QR code that has been provided by the merchant. QRIS has been officially launched and supervised under Bank Indonesia. The easy use of QRIS provides benefits for both merchants and buyers, especially for users of non-cash payment applications. For merchants, QRIS is useful in terms of increasing sales, practicality, branding, saving, avoiding counterfeit money, segregating business funds, and credit profiles. QRIS are flexible, safe and practical so that QRIS can become the driving force in the acceleration of digitalization for economic recovery.</em><em></em></p><p class="abstrak" align="left"> </p><p class="abstrak">Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui implementasi dari QRIS yang diukur dari eksistensi serta urgensi sebagai media digitalisasi pembayaran guna mendukung digitalisasi UMKM dalam rangka pemulihan perekonomian Indonesia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian studi pustaka yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif-deskriptif dalam menjelaskan fenomena terkait implementasi QRIS pada UMKM. Sumber data yang digunakan adalah sumber data sekunder yang berasal dari jurnal maupun laporan terkait dengan digitalisasi UMKM. Hasil dan pembahasan dari penelitian ini, bahwa QRIS yang diluncurkan oleh Bank Indonesia dapat membantu adaptasi pelaku UMKM terkait kondisi yang ada. QRIS sebagai strategi bertahan UMKM ini diusung dengan tema UNGGUL (UNiversal, GampanG, Untung dan Langsung). Tema tersebut diambil karena penggunaan QRIS yang mudah dan praktis, yaitu dengan melakukan scan pada QR code yang sudah disediakan oleh merchant. QRIS telah resmi diluncurkan dan diawasi dibawah Bank Indonesia. Penggunaan QRIS yang mudah memberikan manfaat baik bagi merchant maupun kepada pembeli terutama bagi pengguna aplikasi pembayaran non tunai. Bagi merchant, QRIS bermanfaat dalam segi, peningkatan penjuala, praktis, branding, hemat, penghindaran uang palsu, pemisahan dana usaha, dan credit profile. Bagi pengguna, manfaat QRIS berupa, fleksibel, aman dan praktis. Dalam hal ini, maka dapat dikatakan QRIS sebagai pendorong percepatan digitalisasi guna pemulihan ekonomi.</p><p class="abstrak"> </p></div>
AbstractMammalian innate immune sensor STING (STimulator of INterferon Gene) was recently found to originate from bacteria. During phage infection, bacterial STING sense c-di-GMP generated by the CD-NTase (cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferase) encoded in the same operon and signal suicide commitment as a defense strategy that restricts phage propagation. However, the precise binding mode of c-di-GMP to bacterial STING and the specific recognition mechanism are still elusive. Here, we determine two complex crystal structures of bacterial STING/c-di-GMP, which provide a clear picture of how c-di-GMP is distinguished from other cyclic dinucleotides. The protein-protein interactions further reveal the driving force behind filament formation of bacterial STING. Finally, we group the bacterial STING into two classes based on the conserved motif in β-strand lid, which dictate their ligand specificity and oligomerization mechanism, and propose an evolution-based model that describes the transition from c-di-GMP-dependent signaling in bacteria to 2’3’-cGAMP-dependent signaling in eukaryotes.
Nematocysts are secretory organelles in cnidarians that play important roles in predation, defense, locomotion, and host invasion. However, the extent to which nematocysts contribute to adaptation and the mechanisms underlying nematocyst evolution are unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the nematocyst in cnidarian evolution based on eight nematocyst proteomes and 110 cnidarian transcriptomes/genomes. We detected extensive species-specific adaptive mutations in nematocyst proteins (NEMs) and evidence for decentralized evolution, in which most evolutionary events involved non-core NEMs, reflecting the rapid diversification of NEMs in cnidarians. Moreover, there was a 33–55 million year macroevolutionary lag between nematocyst evolution and the main phases of cnidarian diversification, suggesting that the nematocyst can act as a driving force in evolution. Quantitative analysis revealed an excess of adaptive changes in NEMs and enrichment for positively selected conserved NEMs. Together, these findings suggest that nematocysts may be key to the adaptive success of cnidarians and provide a reference for quantitative analyses of the roles of phenotypic novelties in adaptation.
AbstractThere is substantial evidence that women tend to support different policies and political candidates than men. Many studies also document gender differences in a variety of important preference dimensions, such as risk-taking, competition and pro-sociality. However, the degree to which differential voting by men and women is related to these gaps in more basic preferences requires an improved understanding. We conduct an experiment in which individuals in small laboratory “societies” repeatedly vote for redistribution policies and engage in production. We find that women vote for more egalitarian redistribution and that this difference persists with experience and in environments with varying degrees of risk. This gender voting gap is accounted for partly by both gender gaps in preferences and by expectations regarding economic circumstances. However, including both these controls in a regression analysis indicates that the latter is the primary driving force. We also observe policy differences between male- and female-controlled groups, though these are substantially smaller than the mean individual differences—a natural consequence of the aggregation of individual preferences into collective outcomes.