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2022 ◽  
Verónica González-Gambau ◽  
Estrella Olmedo ◽  
Antonio Turiel ◽  
Cristina González-Haro ◽  
Aina García-Espriu ◽  

Abstract. This paper presents the first Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) dedicated products over the Baltic Sea. The SSS retrieval from L-band brightess temperature (TB) measurements over this basin is really challenging due to important technical issues, such as the land-sea and ice-sea contamination, the high contamination by Radio-Frequency Interferences (RFI) sources, the low sensitivity of L-band TB at SSS changes in cold waters and the poor characterization of dielectric constant models for the low SSS and SST ranges in the basin. For these reasons, exploratory research in the algorithms used from the level 0 up to level 4 has been required to develop these dedicated products. This work has been performed in the framework of the European Space Agency regional initiative Baltic+ Salinity Dynamics. Two Baltic+ SSS products have been generated for the period 2011–2019 and are freely distributed: the Level 3 (L3) product (daily generated 9-day maps in a 0.25° grid, (González-Gambau et al., 2021a) and the Level 4 (L4) product (daily maps in a 0.05° grid, (González-Gambau et al., 2021b)), that are computed by applying multifractal fusion to L3 SSS with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) maps. The accuracy of L3 SSS products is typically around 0.7–0.8 psu. The L4 product has an improved spatio-temporal resolution with respect to the L3 and the accuracy is typically around 0.4 psu. Regions with the highest errors and limited coverage are located in Arkona and Bornholm basins and Gulfs of Finland and Riga. The impact assessment of Baltic+ SSS products has shown that they can help in the understanding of salinity dynamics in the basin. They complement the temporally and spatially very sparse in situ measurements, covering data gaps in the region and they can also be useful for the validation of numerical models, particularly in areas where in situ data are very sparse.

2022 ◽  
pp. 10-16
V. A. Shamakhov ◽  
N. M. Mezhevich ◽  
Shuhong Guo

At present, with the opportunities of the previous model of world economic development exhausted, only countries building alternative models of global cooperation will have good economic prospects. In this conditions the new role of Russia, China is traced. This article examines the experience and prospects of cooperation between Beijing and the Baltic countries, including within the framework of the well-known project “One Belt — One Way”.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Juliane Hecht ◽  
Maria Borowiak ◽  
Bernhard Fortmeier ◽  
Salah Dikou ◽  
Wolfgang Gierer ◽  

Vibrio spp. are Gram-negative bacteria found in marine ecosystems. Non-cholera Vibrio spp. can cause gastrointestinal infections and can also lead to wound infections through exposure to contaminated seawater. Vibrio infections are increasingly documented from the Baltic Sea due to extended warm weather periods. We describe the first isolation of Vibrio fluvialis from a wound infection acquired by an impalement injury in the shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. The severe infection required amputation of the third toe. Whole genome sequencing of the isolate was performed and revealed a genome consisting of two circular chromosomes with a size of 1.57 and 3.24 Mb.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
George Westmeijer ◽  
Maliheh Mehrshad ◽  
Stephanie Turner ◽  
Linda Alakangas ◽  
Varvara Sachpazidou ◽  

AbstractThe deep biosphere is an energy constrained ecosystem yet fosters diverse microbial communities that are key in biogeochemical cycling. Whether microbial communities in deep biosphere groundwaters are shaped by infiltration of allochthonous surface microorganisms or the evolution of autochthonous species remains unresolved. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon analyses showed that few groups of surface microbes infiltrated deep biosphere groundwaters at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden, but that such populations constituted up to 49% of the microbial abundance. The dominant persisting phyla included Patescibacteria, Proteobacteria, and Epsilonbacteraeota. Despite the hydrological connection of the Baltic Sea with the studied groundwaters, infiltrating microbes predominantly originated from deep soil groundwater. Most deep biosphere groundwater populations lacked surface representatives, suggesting that they have evolved from ancient autochthonous populations. We propose that deep biosphere groundwater communities in the Fennoscandian Shield consist of selected infiltrated and indigenous populations adapted to the prevailing conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Janusz Marchwiński ◽  
Karolina Kurtz-Orecka

PurposeThe aim of the research is to determine the influence of photovoltaic (PV) installation and the share of façade glazing on the energy profile of nursery buildings in the Baltic Sea region, as well as defining the most favorable configuration in terms of energy efficiency.Design/methodology/approachThe article provides comparative calculations of energy performance indicators (Ep, Ed, Eu) and CO2 emissions (mCO2) made for the defined model of the nursery. It includes calculations concerning energy performance of the building, depending on its PV power (0–60 kWp), PV efficiency (100 and 85%) and façade glazing ratio (GR = 25%, 50% and 75%).FindingsThe results of the research indicate that an increase in the PV power exerts proportional impact on the reduction of the Ep and Ed indicators, as well as on the CO2 emissions. Only low GR values (25%) reduce the Eu indicator significantly. Decrease in high range of GR values (over 50%) does not provide proportional effects. In the variant: 60 kWp (100% efficiency) with GR = 25%, the biggest share (99.5%) of RES was obtained. This proves that the concept of energy independent nursery buildings is feasible and reasonable in the examined location.Practical implicationsDesigning buildings towards environmental neutrality requires laborious pre-design conceptual work before developing the right solutions. The set of results of the relationship between the variables of the building's envelope, energy performance indicators and the required involvement of active RES installations to achieve high energy performance of a building presented in the article is valuable. It allows for a preliminary decision of the direction of the design solutions selection in the design process of public utility buildings, such as nurseries. Thus, it may significantly shorten the pre-design analysis process for the location of the southern part of the Baltic Sea region.Originality/valueThe novelty of the paper relies on examining the dependences between PV power and façade glazing ratio in terms of their influence on energy profile of nursery buildings.

Ekaterina Flerova ◽  
Victoria V. Yurchenko ◽  
Yulia P. Sapozhnikova ◽  
Dmitry S. Sendek ◽  
Sergey F. Titov ◽  

The study focuses on the microanatomy and ultrastructural changes in the trunk kidney interstitium cells and nephrons in parr, smolt and spawning brown trout Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 sampled in Luga River and Solka River, the tributaries of the Baltic Sea. Regardless of the type of cells or their structure, there were changes in their areas and the number and structure of organelles responsible for the transport, synthetic and energetic function of cells. Our data on the morphology of the nephron combined with data on its physiology suggest a fundamental change in kidney function during the parr-smolt transformation before migration; this could be a preadaptation for a successful life in saltwater where urine output is sharply reduced. Thus, detected structural features of the trunk kidney in brown trout S. trutta are cytological markers of the migration process. The numbers of lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils with segmented nuclei increased from parr to smolts and then to spawners; only monotypic specific granules in neutrophils were found in smolts and spawners. Cells with radially arranged vesicles were described for the first time in brown trout S. trutta renal interstitium. Their origin has not yet been established. The shape of these cells changed from spherical to trihedral during fish maturation. All the above ultrastructural changes of renal interstitium cells could be considered cytological markers of cell maturity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-57
Adam Krzymowski

The presented manuscript deals with three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) that are part of the Three Seas Initiative in the context of cooperation with the United Arab Emirates. The research’s goal is analysis the larger dimension of Three Seas Initiative and its creative role and importance in the international arena, including the Middle East. In this sense, this paper asks a research question of whether the relations between Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the United Arab Emirates have the potential for deeper and broader creative dynamics of their cooperation. The presented article is the first research work of this type. Thus, it fills a gap in the literature and analyses concerning relations between the Baltic states and the United Arab Emirates. This work is primarily base on empirical research conducted for ten years. In addition, the author used his own creative experience, including as an Ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (2011–2015) or Senior advisor at Expo 2020 (2016–2018), responsible for strategies and creative development of relations the United Arab Emirates with all the Three Seas Initiative countries, including Baltic states. As a result of the research, the author argues that Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as a part of the Three Seas Initiative, should make this concept more creative in its external dimension, with the United Arab Emirates. Expo 2020 (1 October, 2021–31 March, 2022) provides an opportunity for creative diplomacy. This event is an occasion to demonstrate joint projects, also in global aspects.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 436
Tomasz Studzieniecki ◽  
Tadeusz Palmowski ◽  
Remigiusz Joeck

Energy transition is a multi-dimensional process of developing sustainable economies by seeking renewable energy sources, saving energy, and improving energy efficiency. This process follows the rules of sustainable development. The article presents an analysis of energy transition in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) enjoying long-term and intensive territorial cooperation. The region embraces 11 countries diversified in terms of their economic development level and the use of renewable energy sources. The article strives to answer the question of whether territorial cooperation contributes to BSR energy transition, and if so, in what way. Another goal is to identify the transition drivers that arise from the Baltic Sea Region’s unique characteristics. The authors applied the system analysis methodology. The performed literature studies allowed the researchers to identify the attributes of energy transition. Empirical research relied on secondary sources, including the European Union (EU) statistics, The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR), and related documents. The key role in the conducted research can be attributed to the EU projects database (, which enabled identifying the 2016–2020 programmes and projects. The research identified 14 BSR territorial cooperation programmes and 1471 projects conducted under the programmes, including 137 energy transition-related projects. The project results were presented in quantitative and qualitative terms.

Jeronimo Esteve-Perez ◽  
Antonio Garcia-Sanchez

The continuous growth of the cruise industry has brought with it a series of threats. Among them is the management of the seasonality of cruise activity in order to address its negative effects. This study examines the monthly cruise passenger movement distribution among a group of harbors located in the northeast sector of the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea with the aim of determining the existence of seasonality patterns in cruise traffic and their relationship between different regions. A database of cruise passenger movements during the period from 2007 to 2019 among 24 harbors forms the backbone of the empirical analysis. First, the seasonal variation index of each harbor was calculated to determine the seasonality pattern. Second, a cluster analysis was performed to classify harbors into clusters with analogous seasonality patterns. The results reveal that seasonality of cruise activity in a consolidated region is explained by own factors of the region, but also by an induced seasonality imported from neighboring cruise regions.

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