Journal of Applied Accounting Research
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Published By Emerald (Mcb Up )

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Updated Saturday, 23 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yasmine M. Ragab ◽  
Mohamed A. Saleh

PurposeThis study examines the effect of non-financial variables related to governance on the accuracy of financial distress prediction among Egyptian listed small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), by using the logistic regression technique.Design/methodology/approachThis study used a sample of 24 Egyptian-listed SMEs in each year, totaling 120 firm observations, of which 25 were classified distressed and 95 of them non-distressed between 2014 and 2018. The variables for the study included five financial variables and thirteen non-financial variables related to governance. The models were developed using financial variables alone as well as combining financial and non-financial variables related to governance.FindingsThe results showed that the model with financial variables had a prediction accuracy of 91.7% , whereas models with a combination of financial and non-financial variables related to governance predict with comparatively better accuracy of 92.7 and 93.6% .Research limitations/implicationsAlthough the results seem to be conclusive, it could be noted that the non-distressed sample was not paired with the distressed sample. Other studies showed that paired samples increase the financial distress prediction rate. Furthermore, due to the small sample size, this study was unable to create a hold-out sub-sample for the accuracy test.Practical implicationsThe proposed distress prediction model for SMEs is effective for stakeholders, including banks and other financial institutions, in the assessment of the credit risk of SMEs. Using such a model, they could better identify SMEs with a higher risk of failure in their lending decisions. Moreover, SME managers' could be interested in using such models as a tool for planning corrective action, in addition to planning and controlling current operations to avoid financial failure in the future.Originality/valueThis study contributes to financial distress prediction literature in different ways. First, few studies were conducted in the area of financial distress among SMEs. Second, neither of these studies was conducted within the Egyptian context, nor any of them had used non-financial variables related to governance in the prediction of financial distress among SMEs.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ahmad Khodamipour ◽  
Mahdi Askari Shahamabad ◽  
Fateme Askari Shahamabad

PurposeMany developed countries have been using environmental taxes in their economic systems for many years. These taxes have a great impact on reducing the environmental damages of companies and individuals in society. But many developing countries have not used this tool effectively yet, and some countries face barriers to the effective implementation of environmental taxes that make it difficult and unsuccessful. To increase the effectiveness of the implementation of environmental taxes, governments must prioritize barriers and solutions to overcome its barriers. The identified knowledge gap of the pre-literature review is that an overview of the identification which completely considers all barriers and solutions of environmental taxes implementation does not exist. In response to this knowledge gap, this study aims to identify and prioritize the barriers and solutions of environmental taxes implementation.Design/methodology/approachRanking the barriers and solutions is a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem that requires consideration of multiple feasible alternatives and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. This study addresses the prioritization of solutions of Environmental Taxes implementation by proposing hybrid MCDM methods based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy-AHP) and the Fuzzy Technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) under fuzzy environment. Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the weight of each barrier using a pairwise comparison, and fuzzy TOPSIS is used to finalize the ranking of solutions for more effective implementation of environmental taxes.FindingsThe results showed that environmental tax reform (ETR) (S3) has the highest value among the solutions for more effective implementation of environmental taxes. The result of the proposed model is validated by performing sensitivity analysis.Research limitations/implicationsThis study could foster research on the discussion of these barriers and precise ways of implementing solutions to pay more attention to environmental taxes.Practical implicationsRatings of solutions can be a guide and help governments to improve the implementation of environmental taxes or even develop this policy by being aware of the ranking of barriers and solutions.Social implicationsThis paper creates a new perspective on the effective implementation of environmental taxes, which is closely related to improving environmental performance and increasing social welfare through improving the tax system.Originality/valueFor the first time, this study comprehensively identifies barriers and solutions for more effective implementation of environmental taxes and ranks them using two MCDM techniques.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sebastiano Cupertino ◽  
Gianluca Vitale ◽  
Pasquale Ruggiero

PurposeThis paper investigates whether and how Directive 2014/95/EU affects financial performance as well as its moderation effect on the relationship between financial and non-financial performance, involving different stakeholders' perspectives.Design/methodology/approachWe adopted the panel data approach to perform random effects regression analysis on a sample of 435 European listed non-financial companies, considering a timeframe of six years. Furthermore, the moderation effect of the Directive 2014/95/EU on the relationship between financial and non-financial performance has been tested.FindingsNFD regulation negatively affects firms' operating profitability and shareholder value while produces no effects on debtholders' returns. Nevertheless, the Directive 2014/95/EU has general positive moderating effects on the relationship between non-financial and financial performance, mitigating the direct costs induced by pursuing non-financial performance.Research limitations/implicationsShifting from mimetic to coercive isomorphism caused a strengthening of the complementarity between financial and non-financial performance dimensions, extending the concept of performance itself. The analysis carried out is limited to a short-term timeframe and on non-financial companies subject to the Directive 2014/95/EU.Practical implicationsThe paper highlights trade-offs between the costs induced by non-financial activities and the benefits of being compliant with the non-financial disclosure (NFD) regulation, supporting managers in allocating business resources.Originality/valueThis paper is among the first that investigates the impact of mandatory NFD on the relationship between non-financial and financial performance. It is also one of the earliest in finding some pieces of evidence on the direct impact of Directive 2014/95/EU on EU companies' financial performance.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gianluca Zanellato ◽  
Adriana Tiron-Tudor

PurposeThe purpose of the research is to shed light on how the mandatory regulation on nonfinancial information has changed European state-owned enterprises' (SOEs) disclosure levels. In addition, the present research aims to demonstrate, under the lens of legitimacy theory, how Hofstede's cultural dimensions shape social expectations that may have suffered changes after the introduction of a mandatory regulation on nonfinancial reporting.Design/methodology/approachThe paper adopts a mixed approach. First, it employees the content analysis to investigate the disclosure level on 22 of the 24 European SOEs. Second, the authors demonstrate how cultural dimensions take a different role when a change in regulation is introduced using the qualitative comparative analysis (QCA).FindingsThe results reveal a slight increase in disclosure from the year before introducing the directive. Additionally, the results demonstrate how none of Hofstede's cultural dimensions is responsible for high disclosure levels. Although, the sufficiency analysis outlines several combinations of different cultural dimensions that lead to high disclosure levels. In particular, results demonstrate how the core dimensions leading to the outcome changed once the European Union Directive (EUD) has entered into force.Research limitations/implicationsDespite the contributions, the present study is not free of limitations. As the investigated sample is limited to a small number of SOEs, the content analysis adopts a dichotomous approach. The analysis is conducted on integrated reporting, and the fuzzy set QCA results cannot be used for generalization but refer only to the investigated sample. Consequently, further studies should investigate a broader sample of SOEs and organizations that adopt other nonfinancial reporting frameworks. Additionally, a qualitative approach to the reports' analysis is recommended.Practical implicationsIt demonstrates how the EUD on nonfinancial information has impacted the disclosure levels of European SOEs. It adopts a fresh methodology rarely used in accounting. It demonstrates how cultural conditions influence social expectations that determine corporations to disclose more information after the introduction of a regulatory framework.Originality/valueThe paper's theoretical contribution refers to its focus on the public sector, and it adopts a methodology rarely used by accounting scholars.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Francesca Rossignoli ◽  
Riccardo Stacchezzini ◽  
Alessandro Lai

PurposeEuropean countries are likely to increasingly adopt integrated reporting (IR) voluntarily, after the 2014/95/EU Directive is revised and other initiatives are implemented. Therefore, the present study provides insights on the relevance of IR in voluntary contexts by exploring analysts' reactions to the release of integrated reports in diverse institutional settings.Design/methodology/approachDrawing on voluntary disclosure theory, a quantitative empirical research method is used to explore the moderating role of country-level institutional characteristics on the associations between voluntary IR release and analyst forecast accuracy and dispersion.FindingsIR informativeness is not uniform in the voluntary context and institutional settings play a moderating role. IR release is associated with increased consensus among analyst forecasts. However, in countries with weak institutional enforcement, a reverse association is detected, indicating that analysts rely largely on IR where the institutional setting strongly protects investors. Although a strong institutional setting boosts the IR release usefulness in terms of accuracy, it creates noise in analyst consensus.Research limitations/implicationsAcademics can appreciate the usefulness of voluntary IR across the institutional enforcement contexts.Practical implicationsManagers can use these findings to understand opportunities offered by IR voluntary release. The study recommends that policymakers, standard setters and regulators strengthen the institutional enforcement of sustainability disclosure.Originality/valueThis study is a unique contribution to recent calls for research on the effects of nonfinancial disclosure regulation and on IR “impacts”. It shows on the international scale that IR usefulness for analysts is moderated by institutional patterns, not country-level institutional characteristics.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gregor Dorfleitner ◽  
Davide Forcella ◽  
Quynh Anh Nguyen

PurposeThis study seeks to identify the factors that are associated with the digital transformation of microfinance institutions (MFIs).Design/methodology/approachThe study employs probit models to investigate the likelihood of integrating digital solutions by MFIs and Heckman models for robustness checks.FindingsThe findings reveal that the adoption of these tools is consistent with the social performance of MFIs. Furthermore, the profitability of the institutions and their home country development are associated with a larger application of digital support solutions.Research limitations/implicationsSince the survey data collected is not longitudinal and does not cover many MFIs, it may encounter the absence of comprehensive results. Moreover, the study is limited to supply-side incentive factors, thus lacks of investigations under supply-demand interaction schemes. Therefore, future studies are encouraged to fill up these knowledge gaps.Practical implicationsThe results imply that the adoption of digital solutions does not necessarily harm the social performance of MFIs. In addition, the findings may imply that financial sustainability can serve as being a preliminary condition but must not lead to the mission drift of MFIs. Findings of the study have implications for policymakers, donors and investors who wish to accelerate the digital transformation within the microfinance industry and to significantly boost financial inclusion. A focus on more social-oriented MFIs can be an appropriate solution. Furthermore, the pathway to digital financial inclusion through microfinance can be made more efficient if improved and supportive facilities as well as systems for digital technology are available.Originality/valueThis paper is the first one which highlights the relationship between the MFI's social performance and the application of digital solutions by MFIs. Furthermore, we discuss this link while considering cost aspects.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mai Mohammed Alm El-Din ◽  
Atef Mohammed El-Awam ◽  
Farid Moharram Ibrahim ◽  
Ahmed Hassanein

PurposeThe study explores the relationship between information overloading and the complexity of reporting. In particular, it investigates whether voluntary information in a firm annual report is associated with its readability. Likewise, it examines how a firm's profitability and earnings management practices impact the nexus of voluntary disclosure and readability.Design/methodology/approachIt uses the annual reports of the Egyptian nonfinancial firms listed in the EGX 100 index from 2010 to 2018. The readability of the annual report is measured automatically using the LIX index, and a predeveloped voluntary disclosure index is used to measure the level of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports.FindingsThe results reveal that the readability of annual reports is a negative function of voluntary disclosure, suggesting that Egyptian firms with more voluntary disclosure are likely to have more complex (i.e. less readable) annual reports. Likewise, less profitable firms and firms with earning management practices increase voluntary information in their annual reports, resulting in an adverse impact on their reporting readability.Research limitations/implicationsIt focuses only on the annual reports of Egyptian firms and considers a firm’s overall voluntary information rather than a particular area of voluntary disclosure. It introduces a code to measure the readability of Arabic-written texts, which can be applied to different areas of disclosure.Practical implicationsPolicymakers in Egypt are encouraged to develop enforceable regulations to control voluntary disclosure in annual reports. Egyptian investors should view the practice of higher voluntary disclosure skeptically as its aim may be to divert attention from a firm's poor performance and earnings management practice.Originality/valueThe study is the first evidence from Egypt on the effect of information overloading, proxied by voluntary disclosure, on the readability of reporting. Likewise, it contributes to methodological development in measuring the readability of Arabic-written annual reports.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Charlotte Haugland Sundkvist ◽  
Tonny Stenheim

PurposeThis study examines the reporting of impairment losses in family and non-family private firms. The socioemotional wealth (SEW) theory suggests that the reporting practices in family firms may differ from non-family firms and may vary among family firms.Design/methodology/approachThe research question is examined using a large-scale archival study. The authors use unique register data on family relationships for Norwegian private firms provided by the CCGR database at BI Norwegian Business School.FindingsDrawing on the socioemotional wealth theory, the authors predict and find that private family firms are more reluctant to report impairment losses compared to private non-family firms. The results also suggest that both the likelihood to report impairment losses and the impairment amounts increase with board independence in private family firms. The authors also find some evidence suggesting that private family firms with a family CEO report lower impairment losses than private family firms without a family CEO, but this result is less robust and should be interpreted with caution.Research limitations/implicationsThe true economic impairment is unobservable. The authors use proxies based on prior research to control for whether impairment losses are faithfully reported or not.Practical implicationsThe results suggest a higher risk of impairment losses being managed in private family firms than in private non-family firms and that independent board members mitigate this tendency somewhat in private family firms. Awareness of this risk should have practical value for stakeholders such as non-family owners and creditors, external auditors, supervisory and monitoring bodies, and regulators.Originality/valueThis study contributes to the accounting literature by examining the reporting of a specific accrual (impairment losses) in the setting of private family firms. Prior research in this area is scarce.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rosa Lombardi ◽  
Federico Schimperna ◽  
Paola Paoloni ◽  
Michele Galeotti

PurposeThis paper investigates the quality and quantity of climate-related information disclosed by public interest entities (PIEs) in the non-financial disclosure scenario. Thus, this paper aims at drafting the state of the art on what is climate-related information disclosed by PIEs in the changing EU non-financial regulation assuming the Italian scenario and the industrial industry as significant in achieving the research aims.Design/methodology/approachThe authors used the content analysis composing the sample of 34 large listed companies (i.e. PIEs) belonging to the industrial sector in Italy. The authors choose the Italian PIEs’ sustainability reports published in 2019 after the adoption of the EU directive and its guidelines. The authors adopted a coding and classification system, investigating the climate-related information through a systematic, objective and reliable method. The authors defined 99 indicators along the structure of the European Commission's guidelines and the indicator of disclosure, climate-related information indicator (CII). The framework mainly derives from the corporate disclosure theory and legitimacy and stakeholders' theories.FindingsThe results show the lack of several required climate-related information or a not in-depth presentation of information. Thus, findings are interesting in emphasizing that the current climate-related disclosure is at an early stage in complying with the European Commission's guidelines. Additionally, the findings enlarge previous theories on corporate disclosure, proposing new insights in the light of the recent interest in climate-related information.Research limitations/implicationsEvidence contributes to extending the existing literature, drafting the state of the art of what is the quality and the quantity of the climate-related information in the corporate disclosure in the European scenario.Practical implicationsThis paper is directed to propose the state of the climate-related disclosure following the EU directive guidelines, proposing some evidence to support the path toward the integrations of information by several parts (e.g. companies, regulators and so on).Originality/valueThe paper is a useful baseline for academics, practitioners, policy-makers and regulators in understanding actions to adopt in the climate-related disclosure and what could be the impact of forthcoming regulations in the field, also having some metrics (e.g. score value of disclosure, the indicator of climate-related information disclosure – CII).


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Simona Cosma ◽  
Rossella Leopizzi ◽  
Lorenzo Nobile ◽  
Paola Schwizer

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to shed light an important limit of the Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD) in pursuit of its substantial purpose, which is to achieve sustainability and contribute to achieving the objectives of United Nation (UN) Agenda 2030; the paper also suggests how to overcome those limits.Design/methodology/approachThe study used a survey of board members of listed and un-listed Italian companies. Data were analysed using an ordered probit model.FindingsThe results show that a greater involvement of a board member in the non-financial reporting process is associated with a stronger commitment towards sustainable development. Specifically, the involvement in materiality assessment is positively associated with more proactive behaviours towards sustainability.Research limitations/implicationsThe use of self-reported assessments on beliefs and behaviours and the application of an online survey are methodology limitations of the study. Regarding theory, the study contributes to the literature on corporate governance and sustainability, integrating upper echelons theory, which focuses on how individual attributes influence a firm's strategies and governance, with research on how leadership practices can have a positive impact on corporate sustainability goals.Practical implicationsThe paper underscores the opportunity for policymakers to increase the effectiveness of the NFRD through deeper involvement of the board members in the process of non-financial reporting. The results could also be of interest to governance bodies in terms of defining a board's tasks and practices to encourage the adoption of behaviours oriented towards a stronger engagement in sustainable issues.Originality/valueThis is the first study to provide evidence of the relationship between individual directors' tasks and behaviours, non-financial reporting and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study highlights some of the limits of the NFRD, even after the public consultation to revise it, and suggests how to overcome these limits.


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