preliminary evidence
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xu-Meng Dong ◽  
Shuo-Nan Ma ◽  
Hai-Jun Wang ◽  
Yuan-Yuan Li ◽  
Yan Li ◽  

Increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been observed in coastal ecosystems worldwide over the past decade, and tight coupling of the carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemical cycle has been recognized in aquatic ecosystems. However, there is still no consensus regarding the potential effects of DOC loading on sediment P release. In a 2-month mesocosm experiment, we tested the effects of DOC enrichment on sediment P release in six glass aquariums. Two treatments were set: Control (without sodium acetate (Na(CH3COO)) addition) and Na(CH3COO) addition (equivalent to 5 mg C L−1). The results showed the following: 1) DOC loading stimulated sediment P mobilization and release, as indicated by increases in the labile P recorded for 7-cm-deep sediment using diffusive gradients in thin films, the flux of P across the sediment–water interface, and the total P concentrations in the overlying water; and 2) stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity, increased P-solubilizing bacteria proportion, and decreased dissolved oxygen concentration were likely the primary mechanisms behind the DOC-stimulated sediment P mobilization and release. These results provide insight into the promotion of sediment P release induced by C addition. Further studies investigating the quantitative relationships between DOC loadings and P release are needed to fully elucidate the coupled roles of C and P, especially those based on large-scale field investigations with broader C forms and loadings.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Tjaša Hertiš Petek ◽  
Maya Petek ◽  
Tadej Petek ◽  
Nataša Marčun Varda

Diaper dermatitis is a common type of irritant contact dermatitis occurring in infants and toddlers. Its occurrence is triggered by an unfavorable environment under the diaper, damage to skin integrity by fecal enzyme degradation, overhydration and disruption of the lipid bilayer structure facilitating the entry of irritants and microorganisms. In diaper dermatitis development, the central proinflammatory cytokines are IL-1α, IL-8 and TNF-α. The initial release of IL-1α and TNF-α starts a further cascade of pro-inflammatory chemo- and cytokines, resulting in inflammation and erythema of the skin. A recently recognized factor in diaper dermatitis is the composition of the skin microbiome; common pathogenic strains Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are associated with skin irritation. The resulting impaired microbiome composition produces a local inflammatory response and may thus worsen the initial dermatitis clinical presentation and subsequent healing. Introduction of probiotics is an attractive treatment for microbiome modulation, which has shown success in other skin conditions in adults and children. Probiotics are thought to work as a protective shield against irritants, maintain low skin pH, secrete beneficial metabolites, and block pathogen invasion. There is preliminary evidence that certain probiotics given orally or topically could be used as a gentle intervention in diaper dermatitis.

Paraskevi Katsiampa ◽  
Paul B. McGuinness ◽  
Jean-Philippe Serbera ◽  
Kun Zhao

AbstractThe years 2013 to 2019 marked an explosion in Fintech in China. We analyze the financial and prudential performance of 40 exchange-traded banks and 25 listed Fintech lenders in China during this watershed period. Among other things, traditional banks experienced rising operating costs, declining profit margins and softening loan quality. Consistent with a process of adaptation, traditional bank performance stabilized in the latter part of the study period (2018-19) after an initial period of decline. Study findings also highlight rising business and regulatory costs for Fintech providers over the course of the study frame. A marked deterioration in online lenders’ Special Mention and Non-Performing Loan (SML & NPL) positions arose during the period. Within the traditional bank group, smaller entities with fewer growth options and greater foreign ownership fared worst in prudential terms. Traditional banks’ financial and prudential performance also declines with time since IPO. Relative to joint stock commercial, city and rural banks, state-owned lenders registered more resilient performance, especially in relation to asset quality. In a final area, we construct a categorical Fintech proficiency variable for China's established banks. Our preliminary evidence suggests such proficiencies help stabilize SML and NPL rates and support financial returns. Overall, we offer major contribution to the banking literature by analyzing the financial and prudential performance of both incumbent and emerging lenders in one of the world’s most dynamic Fintech settings.

Jessica Cross ◽  
Robyn Moroney ◽  
Soon-Yeow Phang

Motivated by regulator concerns that auditors do not always demonstrate sufficient professional skepticism (hereafter skepticism); we consider whether a brief mindfulness intervention can assist. Research has demonstrated that mindfulness interventions help people focus on tasks in a range of settings. We draw on this research to predict, and find, that when novice auditors undertake a mindfulness intervention, they demonstrate greater skepticism than other novice auditors. This exploratory study provides preliminary evidence on an accessible intervention that can encourage greater skepticism.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yosra Mnif ◽  
Imen Cherif

PurposeThe paper aims to investigate the relation between the auditor's workload (LogAPW) and audit quality. Further, it explores whether the presence of a female audit partner (hereafter FEM) influences the LogAPW effect on audit quality.Design/methodology/approachA dataset of 1,629 firm-year observations from 181 companies listed in the NASDAQ OMX Stockholm for the years 2010–2018 has been analyzed. The testable hypotheses have been tested using least squares regressions clustered at the Swedish public-listed companies (client-firm) level.FindingsThe research findings first indicate that overburdened audit partners (APS) are associated with lower-quality audits, consistent with the “busyness hypothesis.” Nevertheless, the adverse association turns to be positive for FEMs, supporting the thesis that FEMs have more tendency, as compared to their male counterparts, to preserve their partnership's position in the public-audit firms. Collectively, these results seem sound, as the results hold unchanged after controlling for the endogeneity concerns and provide the same conclusion for a host of additional measures for both the client-firms' discretionary accruals and the LogAPW.Research limitations/implicationsEven though a lower magnitude of the client-firms' discretionary accruals corresponds to a lower-opportunistic behavior of managers, the research is limited to by which lower values of earnings management reflect a better-quality financial reporting. Given that the empirical analysis has been confined to the Swedish Corporation, the regression results might not be generalizable for other countries with different contextual features.Practical implicationsThe study might participate to the ongoing debate about the introduction of more women to the public-audit firms' elite positions (e.g. partnership) by providing evidence for the favorable female auditor effect on the quality of the client-firms' financial reporting.Originality/valueThe regression results provide a preliminary evidence on how does the presence of a FEM mitigate the inverse relation between the LogAPW and audit quality, which is an issue that has not been examined before.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Patrick C. M. Wong ◽  
Xin Kang ◽  
Hon-Cheong So ◽  
Kwong Wai Choy

AbstractResearch over the past two decades has identified a group of common genetic variants explaining a portion of variance in native language ability. The present study investigates whether the same group of genetic variants are associated with different languages and languages learned at different times in life. We recruited 940 young adults who spoke from childhood Chinese and English as their first (native) (L1) and second (L2) language, respectively, who were learners of a new, third (L3) language. For the variants examined, we found a general decrease of contribution of genes to language functions from native to foreign (L2 and L3) languages, with variance in foreign languages explained largely by non-genetic factors such as musical training and motivation. Furthermore, genetic variants that were found to contribute to traits specific to Chinese and English respectively exerted the strongest effects on L1 and L2. These results seem to speak against the hypothesis of a language- and time-universal genetic core of linguistic functions. Instead, they provide preliminary evidence that genetic contribution to language may depend at least partly on the intricate language-specific features. Future research including a larger sample size, more languages and more genetic variants is required to further explore these hypotheses.

Michael Northend ◽  
William Wilson ◽  
Wendy Osborne ◽  
Christopher P. Fox ◽  
Andrew John Davies ◽  

The addition of polatuzumab vedotin to bendamustine and rituximab (Pola-BR) has been shown to improve overall survival (OS) in stem cell transplant (SCT)-ineligible patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is also increasingly used as bridging to CAR T-cell therapy (CAR-T). We retrospectively analysed the efficacy of Pola-BR in 133 patients at 28 UK institutions. Treatment intent was bridging to CAR-T for N=40, re-induction with planned SCT for N=13 and stand-alone treatment for N=78. The overall response rate (ORR) was 57.0% (complete response (CR) 32.8%). After median 7.7 months follow-up, median PFS and OS were 4.8 months and 8.2 months respectively. For stand-alone treatment shortened PFS was associated with bulk disease (>7.5cm) (HR 2.32 (95% CI 1.23-4.38), p=0.009), >1 prior treatment (HR 2.17 (95% CI 1.19-3.95), p=0.01) and refractoriness to the last treatment (HR 3.48 (95% CI 1.79-6.76), p<0.001). For CAR-T bridging the ORR was 42.1% (CR 18.4%) and for treatment after CAR-T failure the ORR was 43.8% (CR 18.8%). These data demonstrate efficacy for Pola-BR as a treatment for SCT-ineligible patients with R/R DLBCL, help to delineate which patients may benefit most, and provide preliminary evidence of efficacy as bridging to CAR-T and after CAR-T failure.

2022 ◽  
Denise Werchan ◽  
Cassandra Hendrix ◽  
Amy May Hume ◽  
Moriah E Thomason ◽  
Natalie Hiromi Brito

Here we evaluate longitudinal neurodevelopmental trajectories across the first postnatal year in infants of mothers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic during pregnancy. Ninety-three pregnant mothers were recruited beginning at the first peak of the pandemic in New York City, and were oversampled for SARS-CoV-2 exposure during pregnancy (n = 36 COVID-19 exposed mothers). At 6 months postpartum, infant attentional processing was measured remotely using an online webcam-linked eye tracker developed for infant remote research in the home environment. At 12 months, infant socioemotional development was evaluated through maternal-report using validated surveys. Results indicated that interactions between maternal depressive symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 exposure during pregnancy were linked with individual differences in infants’ attentional processing at 6 months of age. Specifically, in mothers reporting positive exposure to SARS-CoV-2, higher prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with attentional patterns characterized by increased orienting to salient stimuli, longer looking times, and lower levels of maternal-reported measures of attentional control. In turn, these attentional patterns subsequently predicted socioemotional competence at 12 months, over and beyond individual contributions of prenatal depression, SARS-CoV-2 exposure, or relevant infant or family characteristics. These findings provide preliminary evidence of phenotypic adaptations in attentional processing by infants of mothers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlight infant attentional processing as a relevant early behavioral predictor of longitudinal developmental trajectories.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xin-Yang Zhang ◽  
Huo-Di Chen ◽  
Wan-Nian Liang ◽  
Xin-Hu Yang ◽  
Dong-Bin Cai ◽  

Objective: The efficacy and safety of adjunctive magnetic seizure therapy (MST) for patients with schizophrenia are unclear. This systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of adjunctive MST for schizophrenia.Methods: Chinese (WanFang and Chinese Journal Net) and English (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library) databases were systematically searched.Results: Two open-label self-controlled studies (n = 16) were included and analyzed in this review. In these studies, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total scores significantly decreased from baseline to post-MST (all Ps < 0.05), without serious adverse neurocognitive effects. Mixed findings on the neurocognitive effects of adjunctive MST for schizophrenia were reported in the two studies. A discontinuation rate of treatment of up to 50% (4/8) was reported in both studies. The rate of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was evaluated in only one study, where the most common ADRs were found to be dizziness (25%, 2/8) and subjective memory loss (12.5%, 1/8).Conclusion: There is inconsistent evidence for MST-related adverse neurocognitive effects and preliminary evidence for the alleviation of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia.

2022 ◽  
pp. rapm-2021-102719
Lukas D Linde ◽  
Carey M Ogryzlo ◽  
Cassandra M Choles ◽  
Brian E Cairns ◽  
John L K Kramer

Background/importanceCannabinoids are emerging as an alternative pain management option, preliminarily supported by preclinical and clinical studies. Unwanted side effects from oral or inhaled cannabinoids remain, however, a major barrier to widespread use. Peripherally acting cannabinoids (eg, topically applied) may circumvent these side effects while providing localized pain management.ObjectiveOur purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of peripherally acting cannabinoids for pain management.Evidence reviewWe searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PubMed databases. Included studies examined the effect of topical/peripherally administered cannabinoids on pain ratings in humans, as well as pain-related outcomes in animals (eg, paw withdrawal). Due to a lack of trials, human studies were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Separate meta-analyses were performed for animal studies using radiant tail flick or paw withdrawal outcomes.FindingsOur search yielded 1182 studies following removal of duplicates, with 46 studies (6 human, 40 animal) included. Human studies (one randomized controlled trial and five case studies/series) reported no adverse events to topical cannabinoids and preliminary evidence of decreased pain ratings. Animal studies reporting tail flick (5) (2.81, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.69, p<0.001) and mechanical withdrawal (11) (2.74, 95% CI 1.82 to 3.67, p<0.001) reported prolonged responses (analgesia) in peripheral cannabinoid groups compared with controls.ConclusionsPreclinical animal studies provided low-quality evidence for peripherally administered cannabinoids to provide regional, antinociceptive effects. The scarcity of high-quality human studies underscores the need to translate preclinical evidence into well-controlled human trials.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document