Contextual Factors
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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Evthokia Stephanie Saclarides

PurposeModeling is a potentially productive activity in which coaches can engage teachers to support teaching and learning (Gibbons and Cobb, 2017). Yet, there is a lack of empirical research that describes how coaches can productively implement this activity with teachers. The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the challenges and support coaches faced while modeling instruction for teachers.Design/methodology/approachTwenty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with five coaches and six elementary teachers in two different school districts in the United States. The data were qualitatively coded using a combination of literature-driven and emergent codes.FindingsParticipants identified 16 distinct challenges they faced during coaching cycles involving modeling, and 11 supports that could ultimately enhance the success of the modeled lesson for all involved parties. These challenges and support spanned the broad categories of contextual factors, management and logistics, pedagogical dilemmas and teacher learning.Originality/valueAlthough modeling is a popular coaching activity, researchers have only an emerging understanding of the challenges associated with modeling instruction, as well as the support that can enhance the modeled lesson's success. By having a thorough understanding of such challenges and support, coaches can effectively leverage modeling to support teaching and learning at their schools. Hence, the findings from this study will importantly inform coaching practice, as well as future research directions.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Daniel E. Ufua ◽  
Emmanuel T. Emielu ◽  
Olusola J. Olujobi ◽  
Faraz Lakhani ◽  
Taiye T. Borishade ◽  

Abstract This study explores the potentials of digital transformation for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with emphasis on SDG 4 and SDG 9 in Nigeria. The study adopts a conceptual approach, reviewing existing literature to explore the topic from various views of authors on the issue. It focuses on the contextual factors such as stakeholder input to the process of the implementation of digitalisation and SDGs 4 and 9 which focuses on educational development at all levels, industrial collaborations and improvements, respectively. The results indicate that digital transformation potentially enhances the attainment of SDGs 4 and 9, but this is mediated by the level of stakeholder commitment and e-governance performance. Part of the recommendation is the adoption of a multi-disciplinary approach to development-oriented digital transformation interventions for SDGs 4 and 9 in Nigeria, through a process of effective stakeholder engagement and transparent institutional signalling. The study draws research attention to the use of digital transformation for social development, especially in a developing economy such as Nigeria, to enhance the compendium of knowledge in the implementation of digital approach to the attainment of SDGs 4 and 9. It is also suggested for the government institutions to take further responsibility to provide a fair platform for the implementation of digital transformation and the attainment of SDGs 4 and 9 in Nigeria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Hilde Halland ◽  
Lampros Lamprinakis ◽  
Ingrid Kvalvik ◽  
Giovanna Bertella

Sustainability learning is gaining popularity as an important field within sustainability research, where farm sustainability can be understood as a learning process. In this study, we seek to reveal the sustainability learning process of farmers, utilizing a framework distinguishing contextual factors (where? and when?), knowledge (what?), motivation (why?), and process (how?). The article presents a participatory inquiry mixed-methods approach, utilizing results from sustainability assessments on five farms with the SMART-farm tool as a unifying starting point for further discussions on sustainability learning in farmers' interviews and stakeholder workshops. Empirically the study is set in the horticultural production in Arctic Norway, where few studies on sustainability have been undertaken. The study shows how both the complexity of the concept of farm sustainability and contextual factors influence the sustainability learning process, for instance by giving rise to a vast number of conflicting issues while working toward farm sustainability. The sustainability learning process is found to be predominantly a social learning process. The theoretic contribution of the study lies in its novel framework that can be used to reveal important aspects of the sustainability learning process, as well as to contribute to the literature on how to proceed from sustainability assessments to implementation. A key finding from the study is that farmers will require continuous assistance in their processes toward farm sustainability, but for this to be possible, knowledge, sources of knowledge, and learning platforms for holistic sustainability need to be established.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Joshua O. Akinyemi ◽  
Clifford O. Odimegwu

Abstract Background Reduction in ideal number of children has been suggested as a necessary precursor for fertility decline especially in high fertility countries of Western and Central Africa. In this study, we explored the social contexts of fertility desires by documenting the effects of individual, household as well as contextual characteristics among young men and women in Nigeria. Methods Data source was the male and female recode file of 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Analytical sample comprised 2674 males and 9637 females aged 15–24 years. The main outcome variable was desire for large family size (DLFS) defined as ideal number of children greater than four. Analysis involved use of descriptive statistics and random-effect logit models fitted in four stages. Results DLFS was 71% among young men and 53% in women. Individual-level factors associated with DLFS among men includes Islam religion (OR = 3.95, CI 2.68–5.83), household size (OR = 1.05) and richer (OR = 0.47, CI 0.29–0.75) or richest wealth index (OR = 0.28, CI 0.16–0.75). Geo-political region and high level of negative attitude to family planning (OR = 1.72, CI 1.23–2.40) were the main contextual factors associated with DLFS. For women, individual-level correlates were education, religion, ethnicity, marital status, household size, and wealth index. Contextual factors include geo-political region, community education (OR = 0.68, CI 0.52–0.89), child mortality experience (OR = 1.29, CI 1.11–1.51) and negative attitude to family planning (OR = 1.36, CI 1.13–1.65). The influence of religion, household wealth and attitude to family planning differ between young men and women. Conclusion Active communication and programmatic interventions are needed so that desire for large family size by young men and women do not become a clog for fertility transition in Nigeria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 144-156
Songyu Jiang ◽  
Ruihui Pu

In recent years, the concept of sustainable consumption behavior (SCB) is largely introduced and changed continuously to be discussed with industries such as energy sector, agriculture, transportation, sharing economy, and tourism. However, the study of sustainable consumption behavior in the online education industry (SCBOEI) remains a research gap. Thus, this paper aims to identify the significance of sustainable consumption behavior and theoretically conceptualize SCBOEI. This study employs content and text analysis to reconceptualize the major theories that contribute to the research of SCB. The findings in this study show that SCBOEI is contributed of great significance to promote sustainable development. In addition, this study introduces a model of SCBOEI, in which the consumer value theory, social exchange theory, and planned behavior theory are integrated. Additionally, this paper suggests that value, environmental attitude, identity, consumer engagement, and contextual factors (government behavior, market conditions, and environmental education) are highly important to extend the research on SCBOEI. In conclusion, this study strongly recommends that SCB research shall be directed to the online education industry. Furthermore, future studies shall emphasize the empirical effects of psychological factors, activity factors, and contextual factors for SCBOEI to find the correlation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 41-50
Mukuka Mpundu Mulenga ◽  
Anders Roos

Wood fuel, charcoal, and firewood comprise over 70 percent of the national energy consumption in Zambia, as only about 25 percent of the population has access to electricity. Replacing charcoal braziers with cookstoves using sawdust pellets can support sustainable energy provision in urban Zambia while reducing deforestation on the countryside. However, acceptability of pellet cookstoves remains low, while the demand for wood fuel is increasing. The study investigated the acceptability of pellet cookstoves, in view of governmental policies, in the Matero-George compound, Lusaka. Qualitative approaches were applied, and respondents were households, and officers at the Departments of Energy and Forestry, and at Lusaka City Council. Factors shaping the stoves’ acceptability included their convenience, possibility of reusing pellets, their long-term cost advantages, and the perceived health benefits of pellets. The barriers included limited supply of pellets, combustible pellet cookstoves, stove size, maintenance costs, cooking traditions, and government policies for dissemination, sensitisation, and communication about pellet stoves. This study demonstrated that implementation of pellet cookstoves at the local level depends on a multitude of contextual factors, and confirms the need for relevant policy instruments if such energy consumption is to be accepted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Santhanalakshmi Gengiah ◽  
Catherine Connolly ◽  
Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma ◽  
Pierre M. Barker ◽  
Andrew J. Nunn ◽  

Abstract Background A quality improvement (QI) collaborative approach to enhancing integrated HIV-Tuberculosis (TB) services may be effective in scaling up and improving the quality of service delivery. Little is known of the role of organizational contextual factors (OCFs) in influencing the success of QI collaboratives. This study aims to determine which OCFs were associated with improvement in a QI collaborative intervention to enhance integrated HIV-TB services delivery. Methods This is a nested sub-study embedded in a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Sixteen nurse supervisors (clusters) overseeing 40 clinics were randomized (1:1) to receive QI training and mentorship, or standard of care support (SOC). In the QI arm, eight nurse supervisors and 20 clinics formed a “collaborative” which aimed to improve HIV-TB process indicators, namely HIV testing, TB screening, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) initiations, viral load testing, and antiretroviral therapy for TB patients. OCFs measured at baseline were physical infrastructure, key staff, flexibility of clinic hours, monitoring data for improvement (MDI), and leadership support. Surveys were administered to clinic staff at baseline and month 12 to assess perceptions of supportiveness of contexts for change, and clinic organization for delivering integrated HIV-TB services. Linear mixed modelling was used to test for associations between OCFs and HIV-TB process indicators. Results A total of 209 clinic staff participated in the study; 97 (46.4%) and 112 (53.6%) from QI and SOC arms, respectively. There were no differences between the QI and SOC arms scores achieved for physical infrastructure (78.9% vs 64.7%; p = 0.058), key staff (95.8 vs 92; p = 0.270), clinic hours (66.9 vs 65.5; p = 0.900), MDI (63.3 vs 65; p = 0.875, leadership support (46.0 vs 57.4; p = 0.265), and perceptions of supportiveness of contexts for change (76.2 vs 79.7; p = 0.128 and clinic organization for delivering integrated HIV-TB services (74.1 vs 80.1; p = 0.916). IPT initiation was the only indicator that was significantly improved in the parent study. MDI was a significantly associated with increasing IPT initiation rates [beta coefficient (β) = 0.004; p = 0.004]. Discussion MDI is a practice that should be fostered in public health facilities to increase the likelihood of success of future QI collaboratives to improve HIV-TB service delivery. Trial registration, NCT02654613. Registered 01 June 2015.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (18) ◽  
pp. 4223
Laura Nuño ◽  
Georgina Guilera ◽  
Emilio Rojo ◽  
Juana Gómez-Benito ◽  
Maite Barrios

An integrated and interdisciplinary care system for individuals with schizophrenia is essential, which implies the need for a tool that assesses the difficulties and contextual factors of relevance to their functioning, and facilitates coordinated working across the different professions involved in their care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets (ICF-CS) cover these requirements. This study aimed to evaluate the content validity of the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia from the perspective of experts. Six three-round Delphi studies were conducted with expert panels from different professional backgrounds which have played a significant role in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia (psychiatry, psychology, nursing, occupational therapy, social work and physiotherapy). In total, 790 experts from 85 different countries participated in the first round. In total, 90 ICF categories and 28 Personal factors reached expert consensus (reached consensus from four or more professional perspectives). All the categories in the brief version of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia reached consensus from all the professional perspectives considered. As for the comprehensive version, 89.7% of its categories reached expert consensus. The results support the worldwide content validity of the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia from an expert perspective and underline the importance of assessing functioning by considering all the components implied.

2021 ◽  
Vol 98 ◽  
pp. 103428
Maria Aparecida Paulo dos Santos ◽  
Talita Araújo de Souza ◽  
Arthur de Almeida Medeiros ◽  
Isabelle Ribeiro Barbosa

2021 ◽  
zahid Mumtaz

Abstract Much is written on the history of madrassas and their contributions to scholarship. In addition, several scholars have done considerable research to identify the causes of madrassas' growth, determine the linkage of madrassa education with breeding extremist ideologies and suggested possible areas for reforms. This particular aspect has been the topic of scholarly debates and a policy problem faced by many governments and international agencies, i.e., how madrassas can be reformed. However, not much literature could be located that draws parallels and dissimilarities between the madrassas of the golden age and the current era. This is important because any reform or policy is unlikely to succeed without considering a problem's historical and contextual factors. Hence this study adopts a historical-exploratory approach to identify the similarities and differences between the madrassas of the golden age of Islam and present times and explore the causes of such differences by utlising the case study of madrassas in Pakistan. Addressing these issues will make the following contributions: First, identifying the similarities and dissimilarities between the madrassas of the golden age and modern times requires a detailed exploration of madrassas' current state and their role, of which little is known. Second, identifying the factors responsible for the differences in madrassas' role from the golden age to modern times will help understand the implications of such differences on madrassas and society. Lastly, such implications will answer the repeated calls in the literature of formulating policies for reforming the madrassas that have been a significant policy problem faced by many countries.

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