Gender Diversity
Recently Published Documents





2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Waqas Bin Khidmat ◽  
Muhammad Danish Habib ◽  
Sadia Awan ◽  
Kashif Raza

Purpose This study aims to examine the determinants of the female representations on Chinese listed firm’s boards. This study also investigates the effect of gender diversity on corporate social responsibility activities. Design/methodology/approach The Tobit regression model is used because the data is censored and using ordinary least square regression can give spurious results. For robust check, the authors also used Heckman’s (1979) two-stage self-selection model to remove the sample self-selection bias. Findings The authors find that the female representations on the corporate board are positively associated with firm age, firm performance, corporate governance, family ownership, institutional ownership and managerial ownership while negatively related to firm size and state ownership. This study also incorporates predictors of the critical mass of women on the Chinese listed firm’s board. The study also tests the female-led hypothesis and concludes that the female representation increases in firms with female chief executive officer (CEO) or female chairpersons. The Chinese listed firms with gender-diverse board are socially responsible. Research limitations/implications The importance of diversity in corporate boards has been demonstrated in light of the agency theory and the resource dependence framework. The results contribute to the previous literature by documenting the determinants of female representations on board, robust by alternative measures of gender diversity, firm size, corporate governance and estimation techniques. Practical implications The economic significance of gender diversity stirred the firms to increase female representation. The policymakers can understand the reasons for female underrepresentation in Chinese boards and can reform the regulation to enhance governance quality, non-state ownership and risk aversion among the listed firms. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the key predictor of the world’s largest emerging economy, specifically the study focuses on the firm specific determinants, different governance attributes, ownership structure and firm risk measures. This study also seeks to answer if the presence of a female in the Chairperson or CEO position encourages the firms to hire more female directors or not?

2021 ◽  
Jennifer T. Grant ◽  
Brinna N. Lee ◽  
Camille Hoagland ◽  
Joshua B. Grubbs ◽  
Beáta Bőthe

The inclusion of the novel diagnosis of Compulsive Sexual Behaviour Disorder in the forthcoming 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases has spurred increasing interest in the clinical profile of the disorder. Such attention has included a focus on potential comorbidities, risk factors, or symptoms resulting from such behaviours, including anxiety. Anxiety disorders have long been noted as comorbid with many other diagnoses, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance use disorders. This review aims to understand the relationship between anxiety and compulsive sexual behaviour in adults and adolescents, based on available quantitative studies. A search of PsycInfo and PubMed revealed 36 studies which quantitatively assessed a relationship between an anxiety measure and a Compulsive Sexual Behaviour Disorder measure, including dissertations and published articles using clinical and community samples. A qualitative synthesis of the studies was conducted, rather than a meta-analysis, due to the variety of methods. Overall, studies were primarily cross-sectional and the relationship between these two constructs was unclear, likely due to several factors, including inconsistent measurement of Compulsive Sexual Behaviour Disorder, lack of gender diversity, and very little longitudinal data. Directions for future research are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10282
Anda Adelina Suciu ◽  
Dragoș Păun ◽  
Florin Sebastian Duma

While the moral argument for gender diversity has already been made and is incontestable, and more and more economical arguments have been brought to support the business case for the presence of women on the boards of directors of publicly listed companies, the bottom-line issue of what kind of impact gender diverse boards have on firm financial performance is still unclear. The aim of this paper is to deliver a comparative analysis of the impact of gender diverse boards on firm financial performance in France and Romania. Our results do not to provide any evidence of a link between boards’ gender diversity and companies’ financial performance, but while the analysis has failed to find a positive link between female presence and firm financial performance, it has not outlined a negative one.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Elisa Menicucci ◽  
Guido Paolucci

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between gender diversity and the risk profile of Italian banks during the period 2015–2019. This study examines whether the presence of female board directors or top executives has any significant effect on bank risk-taking. Design/methodology/approach To explore the influence of women on bank risk-taking, the authors analyzed a sample of 387 Italian banks and developed an econometric model applying unbalanced panel data with firm fixed effects and controls per year. Within a multivariate regression model, the authors considered five risk dimensions to verify the effect of gender diversity. Findings The findings suggest that female board directors and executives are considerably more risk averse and less overconfident than their male colleagues, thus confirming a negative causality between risk-taking and gender diversity. The results reveal that banks headed by women are less risky because they report higher capital adequacy and equity to assets ratios. As credit risk in female-led banks is no different from male-led ones, higher capital adequacy does not derive from lower asset quality because it is linked to the higher risk aversion of female directors and top managers. Research limitations/implications From a theoretical standpoint, the results suggest that having women in executive positions entails different risk implications for Italian banks; from a managerial perspective, the results highlight conditions that may promote the role of women in the banking sector. The conclusions are of particular significance because they provide some support for the view that regulators should favor gender quotas in the board management of banks to reduce risk-taking behavior. Originality/value This paper offers an in-depth examination of the risk practices of banks and it attempts to bridge the gap in prior literature on the risk profile of the Italian banking industry given that few empirical studies have examined the determinants of risk-taking in this field, to date. The findings on the higher risk aversion of women directors advance the understanding of the determinants of risk-taking behavior in banks, suggesting that gender quotas in bank boards can contribute to reducing risk-taking behavior. This also unveils some policy implications for bank regulatory authorities.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Justin G. Davis ◽  
Miguel Garcia-Cestona

Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of chief financial officer (CFO) gender, board gender diversity and the interaction of both factors on financial reporting quality (FRQ) proxied by restatements. Design/methodology/approach Restatements indicate inaccurate financial reporting. The authors use fixed effects conditional logistic regression models to compare firms with and without restatements matched by size, industry and year. The authors’ unique matched–pair sample consists of 546 listed US firms from the period 2005–2016. Findings The authors’ results provide evidence that restatements are less likely when the CFO is a woman and when a higher proportion of women serve on the board of directors (BOD). Considering the interaction effects, the authors find evidence that women on the BOD are more effective at reducing restatement likelihood when the CFO is also a woman. And that although female CFOs reduce restatement likelihood generally, they have no statistically significant effect on restatement likelihood when the BOD is all-male. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first that the authors know of to consider how FRQ is affected by the interaction effects of CFO gender and board gender diversity. The findings corroborate upper echelons theory and extend the understanding of the effects of managerial gender diversity at a time when firms face growing pressure to increase gender diversity at the highest levels. The unique sample, methodology and findings provide new insights into the impact of gender on FRQ that has important policy implications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
Lela Hindasah ◽  
Mugi Harsono

Research aims: This paper provides a literature review on the influence of board of directors' gender diversity on financial and non-financial performance.Design/Methodology/Approach: This research used the content analysis identified from previous studies based on the proxies employed. The article selection process was carried out from reputable international journals published in 2017-2020, resulting in 50 articles discussing board gender diversity and performance.Research findings: This study's results are a conceptual model and future research developments. Research related to female directors and performance has been much carried out. Hence, future research suggests correlating female directors based on monitoring characteristics, human capital board, and demographics. The influence of gender diversity on non-financial performance is also rarely studied.Theoretical contribution/Originality: Identification of gender diversity attributes associated with financial and non-financial performancePractitioner/Policy implication: This study provides valuable information for policymakers or regulators to refine future corporate governance policies and increase understanding of the relationship between corporate governance practices and company performance as measured by financial and non-financial performance.Research limitation/Implication: This study is based on only 50 articles in the last four years.

Onyeizugbe Chinedu Uzochukwu ◽  
Ndubuisi-Okolo Purity Uzoamaka ◽  
I. Odia Robert

The increasing rate of tribalism, regional identities and discrimination among employers and employees in Nigerian organizations most especially public ministries has remained a recurring spike in Nigeria. The study selected ministry of agriculture, health and education in Edo State to examine the level of diversity practiced in terms of gender diversity of ministries in Edo state. The general objective of this study is to examine the relationship between diversity management and employee performance in Edo State ministries. The study specifically aims to identify the extent of relationship that exists between gender diversity and employee commitment of selected Ministries in Edo State. Descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The target population was 275 employees of ministries of agriculture, health and education in Edo State. A total of 275 copies of questionnaire were disseminated to the respondents of the study and only 262 were filled and returned which served as the sample size. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Percentages and frequency tables were used for the descriptive aspects. To test the hypothesis formulated, Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient Analysis was adopted. The study revealed that diversity management such as gender diversity affects employee commitment. The study concludes that gender diversity is a critical workforce diversity management that determines employee commitment in an organization. The study recommends that there is need for creating awareness and conducting trainings bordering on management diversity since most of the staff did not think the organization has invested enough in sensitizing employee.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ali Amin ◽  
Ramiz Ur Rehman ◽  
Rizwan Ali ◽  
Collins G. Ntim

Purpose This study aims to examine the effects of board gender diversity on agency costs in non-financial firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). Design/methodology/approach Multiple regression analysis is used to determine the impact of board gender diversity on agency cost. The research used panel data consisting of 2,062 firm-year observations of 226 non-financial firms listed on the PSX from 2008 to 2019 to test the proposed hypothesis. In addition, the Blau and the Shannon indices were used to checking for robustness. Findings The results indicate that female presence on the board significantly reduces the agency cost and, hence, mitigates the principal-agent conflict. Moreover, consistent with the critical mass theory, it was found that boards with three or more female directors have a stronger impact on reducing the agency cost, as compared to two or fewer female directors on the board. Research limitations/implications The sample was restricted to non-financial firms listed on the PSX only; therefore, the results reflect the attributes of Pakistan’s business environment. A similar analysis in the context of other countries may generate different results. Practical implications The findings imply that female directors play an important role in reducing agency conflicts between shareholders and managers by enhancing monitoring through effective governance mechanisms. The policymakers, therefore, should focus on female career development and encourage professional training programmes to generate a fair, competitive environment for senior female management. Originality/value This study attempts to fill the literature gap in that no similar study covers the non-financial firms’ listed firms in Pakistan. The paper supports the reforms made by the code of corporate governance by making the placement of female directors mandatory on Pakistani corporate boards. Overall, support is provided for the view that regulators should favour gender quotas regarding the composition of the board management team of listed firms to reduce agency conflicts and gain shareholder confidence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 17
Leticia L. N. Bellato

This paper examines the determinants of female board representation for a sample of Brazilian listed companies for the year of 2018. Using count data models, we find that greater firm size, performance and board size lead to higher woman representation on companies’ boards. Also, that private control is associated with a lower number of women on boards. Most studies related to board composition focus on independent directors and are conducted in a developed countries’ setting. This work contributes to the extant literature in understanding what drives woman representation on corporate boards in an emerging market context and also would help to support the definition and implementation of gender diversity policies by showing possible impacts.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document