The stability of function of automatically reinforced vocal stereotypy over time

Kara L. Wunderlich ◽  
Timothy R. Vollmer ◽  
Lindsay R. Mehrkam ◽  
Erica N. Feuerbacher ◽  
Sarah K. Slocum ◽  
2001 ◽  
Vol 77 (2) ◽  
pp. 185-202 ◽  
Valerie Severin ◽  
Jordan J Louviere ◽  
Adam Finn

2019 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 182-207 ◽  
Benoît Faye ◽  
Eric Le Fur

AbstractThis article tests the stability of the main hedonic wine price coefficients over time. We draw on an extensive literature review to identify the most frequently used methodology and define a standard hedonic model. We estimate this model on monthly subsamples of a worldwide auction database of the most commonly exchanged fine wines. This provides, for each attribute, a monthly time series of hedonic coefficients time series data from 2003 to 2014. Using a multivariate autoregressive model, we then study the stability of these coefficients over time and test the existence of structural or cyclical changes related to fluctuations in general price levels. We find that most hedonic coefficients are variable and either exhibit structural or cyclical variations over time. These findings shed doubt on the relevance of both short- and long-run hedonic estimations. (JEL Classifications: C13, C22, D44, G11)

2010 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 68-73 ◽  
María José Contreras ◽  
Víctor J. Rubio ◽  
Daniel Peña ◽  
José Santacreu

Individual differences in performance when solving spatial tasks can be partly explained by differences in the strategies used. Two main difficulties arise when studying such strategies: the identification of the strategy itself and the stability of the strategy over time. In the present study strategies were separated into three categories: segmented (analytic), holistic-feedback dependent, and holistic-planned, according to the procedure described by Peña, Contreras, Shih, and Santacreu (2008) . A group of individuals were evaluated twice on a 1-year test-retest basis. During the 1-year interval between tests, the participants were not able to prepare for the specific test used in this study or similar ones. It was found that 60% of the individuals kept the same strategy throughout the tests. When strategy changes did occur, they were usually due to a better strategy. These results prove the robustness of using strategy-based procedures for studying individual differences in spatial tasks.

2013 ◽  
Vol 44 (6) ◽  
pp. 380-389 ◽  
Sabine Förderer ◽  
Christian Unkelbach

Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to valence changes in neutral stimuli (CSs) through repeated pairing with liked or disliked stimuli (USs). The present study examined the stability of EC effects in the course of 1 week. We investigated how this stability depends on memory for US valence and US identity. We also investigated whether CSs evaluations occurring immediately after conditioning (i.e., evaluative consolidation) are necessary for stable EC effects. Participants showed stable EC effects on direct and indirect measures, independent of evaluations immediately after conditioning. EC effects depended on memory for US valence but not for US identity. And although memory decreased significantly over time, EC effects remained stable. These data suggest that evaluative consolidation is not necessary, and that conditioned preferences and attitudes might persist even when people do not remember the concrete source anymore.

2001 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 377-397
Lisa M. Finkelstein, Melvin E. Gonnerman

2004 ◽  
Vol 35 (3) ◽  
pp. 387-393 ◽  

Background. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) measures the perception of being parented to the age of 16 years. Low scores on the care dimension and high scores on the overprotection dimension are considered to be risk factors of depression. While the PBI has been shown to be a reliable and valid instrument, the stability of the PBI over extended periods (taking into account individual characteristics and life experience) needs to be demonstrated.Method. The PBI was measured in a non-clinical cohort on four waves between 1978 and 1998, along with a series of self-report measures including state depression and neuroticism. Differences in PBI change over time were examined by gender, lifetime major depression diagnosis, and life event variables, as well as by scores on neuroticism and state depression.Results. Acceptable retest coefficients on PBI scores over the 20-year study were found for the cohort. No differences were found in PBI scores over time on the variables examined, including sex and depression measures.Conclusions. The results indicate long-term stability of the PBI over time. The influences of mood state and life experience appear to have little effect on the stability of the perception of parenting as measured by the PBI. The present study increases confidence in the PBI as a valid measure of perceived parenting over extended time periods.

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