specific test
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

756
(FIVE YEARS 295)

H-INDEX

42
(FIVE YEARS 9)

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 295
Author(s):  
Monique Melo Costa ◽  
Hugo Martin ◽  
Bertrand Estellon ◽  
François-Xavier Dupé ◽  
Florian Saby ◽  
...  

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large outbreak since its emergence in December 2019. COVID-19 diagnosis became a priority so as to isolate and treat infected individuals in order to break the contamination chain. Currently, the reference test for COVID-19 diagnosis is the molecular detection (RT-qPCR) of the virus from nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. Although this sensitive and specific test remains the gold standard, it has several limitations, such as the invasive collection method, the relative high cost and the duration of the test. Moreover, the material shortage to perform tests due to the discrepancy between the high demand for tests and the production capacities puts additional constraints on RT-qPCR. Here, we propose a PCR-free method for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling and machine learning (ML) models from salivary samples. Kinetic saliva samples were collected at enrollment and ten and thirty days later (D0, D10 and D30), to assess the classification performance of the ML models compared to the molecular tests performed on NPS specimens. Spectra were generated using an optimized protocol of saliva collection and successive quality control steps were developed to ensure the reliability of spectra. A total of 360 averaged spectra were included in the study. At D0, the comparison of MS spectra from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (n = 105) with healthy healthcare controls (n = 51) revealed nine peaks that significantly distinguished the two groups. Among the five ML models tested, support vector machine with linear kernel (SVM-LK) provided the best performance on the training dataset (accuracy = 85.2%, sensitivity = 85.1%, specificity = 85.3%, F1-Score = 85.1%). The application of the SVM-LK model on independent datasets confirmed its performances with 88.9% and 80.8% of correct classification for samples collected at D0 and D30, respectively. Conversely, at D10, the proportion of correct classification had fallen to 64.3%. The analysis of saliva samples by MALDI-TOF MS and ML appears as an interesting supplementary tool for COVID-19 diagnosis, despite the mitigated results obtained for convalescent patients (D10).


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Marianna O. Nerozna ◽  
Ievgen P. Gula ◽  
Mykhailo F. Rudenko ◽  
Oksana V. Maznichenko ◽  
Oleksandra P. Basanec ◽  
...  

The purpose of the study was to examine whether the presence of items that covered cultural questions in the test оn arts for student graphic designers influenced the fairness of the test across different ethnic and social groups. The reason for the study was to address the gap in the development and validation of tests оn arts that include a cultural domain to assess the skills of undergraduate graphic designers. The research design was based on DIF and DTF methods to examine the factorial structure of test data and to identify whether the factorial structure of the test was the same across ethnic and social groups. A one-factor CFA model was applied to perform measurements for categorised ethnic and social status groups to identify whether the factorial structure was similar or identical for them. The goodness-of-fit measures were calculated using the chi-square statistics, CFI, TLI, and RMSEA to identify how the obtained data is consistent with the hypothesised model. The inclusion of local culture-related questions in the tests оn arts to assess the skills of student graphic designers influences the individuals' latent traits which lead to an increase in DIF values. Though there were detected seven items with the DIF for the whole test, the DTF measurements showed that the DIF effect eliminated each out at test level which is related to the fact the certain ethnic groups performed better in answering some specific test items, while certain status groups performed better in answering some other test items. It is noteworthy that DTF for the Ukrainian art (miscellaneous) section was between 0.07 and 0.14 meaning a moderate DTF effect. However, the DTF variance values for the sections of principles of design and principles of art were lower than 0.07 meaning a small effect. Therefore, it could be concluded that small DTF effects found in both the whole test and each test section separately indicated that DIF effects eliminate each other at the test level.


Author(s):  
Charul Mittal ◽  
Hiba Sami ◽  
K Gururaj ◽  
Fatima Khan ◽  
Asfia Sultan ◽  
...  

Introduction: Brucellosis is a significant but lesser-known cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) in India. Studies documenting the prevalence of Brucellosis in different parts of India are sparse and few. Clinicians thus usually don’t consider it in their differential diagnosis. This study assesses its prevalence in two groups: febrile patients with unknown etiology and individuals presenting with arthritis and/or joint pains. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) among clinicians about the disease was evaluated.Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care center of North India catering to urban, semi-urban, and rural populace. Ninety-two patients with fever of unknown origin, arthralgia, or similar constitutional symptoms were recruited in this study. Detailed clinical history was elicited from all patients as per predesigned proforma and a rigorous physical examination was conducted. Following primary screening to rule out malaria, enteric fever, and leptospirosis, secondary screening for Brucellosis was done by Rapid Screen Test (PUO screen) and IgM and IgG ELISA. A predesigned survey was used for assessing KAP among clinicians about Brucellosis.Results: Brucella infection was diagnosed in 27 (29.3%) cases. The most common symptoms among the patients apart from fever were arthralgia (77.8%), fatigue (70.8%), pallor (66.1%), headache (59.2%), backache (53.8%) and cough (33.3%). PUO screen is a specific test for brucellosis but lacks sensitivity. It detects acute cases but misses chronic cases. IgM ELISA being more sensitive should be used for confirmation. Low ODs point to chronic brucellosis which was confirmed by IgG ELISA. Normal CRP levels in patients with PUO and chronic joint pains should point to brucellosis. KAP revealed that 25% to 50% of doctors considered Brucella in their differential diagnosis of acute and chronic fever respectively while 10% Orthopedics considered it in cases of arthralgia.Conclusion: Our results highlight the significance of Brucella as a cause of PUO and arthralgia. Brucellosis is an underrecognized but important cause of pyrexia of unknown origin and chronic joint pain. It should be actively suspected, diagnosed, and treated.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 80-88


2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (Suppl-3) ◽  
pp. S484-86
Author(s):  
Aisha Qaiser ◽  
Muhammad Babar Sohail Niazi ◽  
Zaheer Ul Hassan ◽  
Shahid Farroq Khattak ◽  
Shahid Iqbal ◽  
...  

Objective: To compare the validity of FNAC & ZN staining in diagnosing tuberculous lymphadenitis taking mycobacterial culture as gold standard. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology department, Fauji Foundation Hospital Peshawar, from Oct 2019 to Sep 2020. Methodology: This study includes 100 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes who presented as outdoor patients. After routine baseline & radiological investigations, FNAC & ZN staining was carried out, followed by mycobacterial culture. Results: FNAC of tuberculous patients was positive in 56 (56%) patients while 24 (24%) patients revealed posi-tive mycobacterial culture. Inpatients with positive culture, 77 (77%) were FNAC positive and 23 (23%) were negative on cytology. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration is more sensitive & specific test than Ziehl-Neelsen staining.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
pp. 60-71
Author(s):  
Barak Bouks

Hamas, Hezbollah and The Houthis are terror movements that use sophisticated means of information flow to a general public through TV, radio and New Media channels, while making use of the newest broadcasting equipment, skilled substances and target specific audiences (culminating with western countries). This study will relate through a scrutinization of these terror movements media in specific test cases, to the following hypotheses: These terror movements are guided by Iran as proxies in order to conduct pro-Iranian cognitive warfare. The test cases had proven a use of meticulous planning in broadcasts or New-Media of Hamas, Hezbollah and The Houthis. These broadcasts or New-Media, presented a use of pre-planned targeting of specific substances to designated audiences. There is Irani involvement in the substances and coordination of Hamas, Hezbollah and The Houthis use of media and technology.


Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Author(s):  
Xufang Huang ◽  
Wei Sheng ◽  
Haonan Chen ◽  
Biao Zhang ◽  
Na Huang ◽  
...  

A competitive fluorescence immunoassay for the quantitative detection of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4, 5-f] quinoline (IQ) in pan-fried meat patties was developed, using magnetic nanoparticles coupled with coating antigen as the capture probe and anti-IQ antibody coupled with NaYF4: Yb, Er upconversion nanoparticles as the signal probe. Under optimal conditionals, the wide detection range for IQ in phosphate buffer saline is from 0.01 to 100 μg·L−1 (R2 = 0.991) with a detection limit of 0.007 μg·L−1. This proposed method has been applied to detect IQ in two different types of pan-fried meat patties at varying frying times, and the IQ content in chicken patties and fish patties are 2.11–3.47 μg·kg−1 and 1.35–2.85 μg·kg−1, respectively. These results are consistent with that of the ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In summary, this method can serve as a sensitive and specific test tool for the determination of IQ in processed meat.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7583
Author(s):  
Tao Xiong ◽  
Yang Zhang ◽  
Nader Amin ◽  
Jin-Chong Tan

A series of rhodamine B (RhB) encapsulated zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 ([email protected]) composite nanomaterials with different concentrations of guest loadings have been synthesized and characterized in order to investigate their applicability to solid-state white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). The nanoconfinement of the rhodamine B dye (guest) in the sodalite cages of ZIF-8 (host) is supported by fluorescence spectroscopic and photodynamic lifetime data. The quantum yield (QY) of the luminescent [email protected] material approaches unity when the guest loading is controlled at a low level: 1 RhB guest per ~7250 cages. We show that the hybrid (luminescent guest) [email protected] material, obtained by mechanically mixing a suitably high-QY [email protected] red emitter with a green-emitting [email protected] “phosphor” with a comparably high QY, could yield a stable, intensity tunable, near-white light emission under specific test conditions described. Our results demonstrate a novel [email protected] composite system exhibiting a good combination of photophysical properties and photostability, for potential applications in WLEDs, photoswitches, bioimaging and fluorescent sensors.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Brittany Irvine

<p>The construction industry accounts for 23% of global CO₂ emissions each year¹. Coupled with contemporary pressures of urbanisation, there is demand for increased density construction². To improve the relationship the industry has with the environment it must reconsider its construction methods and material choices. Engineered timber is a sustainable and structural solution for these issues.  Commonly when building with engineered timber, traditional construction methodologies are applied. The material is simply used as a replacement for steel and concrete and does not explore the tectonic opportunities available. This results in the same monolithic multi-story buildings.  This research portfolio offers a new approach to flexible modular housing using cross-laminated timber (CLT). It is researched through an adaptable urban housing complex. It explores the tectonics of CLT and develops a diverse design language that offsets how the material has been traditionally used.  The design research was conducted through a series of design-led experiments comprised of four key phases; the problem, the exploration, the parts and the test. The problem researched key issues around CLT. This highlighted current deficiencies in the design of timber medium-density housing in New Zealand. The research explores the specific tectonics of CLT as an engineered timber product. Developing a series of components that can be assembled on various urban sites. This process translated into a singular site-specific test in Te Aro, Wellington.  The implications of this research are to provide an alternative approach to urban medium-density housing using engineered timber technology. The result of this process is the design of a modular system of interlocking dwellings that can be optimized to site and that optimise the visual and spatial opportunities of engineered timber. Offsetting the current design language of medium-density timber buildings and proposing visual and spatial improvements to inner-city living in New Zealand.  ¹ (Huang, Krigsvoll, Johansen, Liu, & Zhang, 2018) ² (Wellington City Council, 2015.)</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Brittany Irvine

<p>The construction industry accounts for 23% of global CO₂ emissions each year¹. Coupled with contemporary pressures of urbanisation, there is demand for increased density construction². To improve the relationship the industry has with the environment it must reconsider its construction methods and material choices. Engineered timber is a sustainable and structural solution for these issues.  Commonly when building with engineered timber, traditional construction methodologies are applied. The material is simply used as a replacement for steel and concrete and does not explore the tectonic opportunities available. This results in the same monolithic multi-story buildings.  This research portfolio offers a new approach to flexible modular housing using cross-laminated timber (CLT). It is researched through an adaptable urban housing complex. It explores the tectonics of CLT and develops a diverse design language that offsets how the material has been traditionally used.  The design research was conducted through a series of design-led experiments comprised of four key phases; the problem, the exploration, the parts and the test. The problem researched key issues around CLT. This highlighted current deficiencies in the design of timber medium-density housing in New Zealand. The research explores the specific tectonics of CLT as an engineered timber product. Developing a series of components that can be assembled on various urban sites. This process translated into a singular site-specific test in Te Aro, Wellington.  The implications of this research are to provide an alternative approach to urban medium-density housing using engineered timber technology. The result of this process is the design of a modular system of interlocking dwellings that can be optimized to site and that optimise the visual and spatial opportunities of engineered timber. Offsetting the current design language of medium-density timber buildings and proposing visual and spatial improvements to inner-city living in New Zealand.  ¹ (Huang, Krigsvoll, Johansen, Liu, & Zhang, 2018) ² (Wellington City Council, 2015.)</p>


Author(s):  
Daniel Lanzoni ◽  
Andrea Vitali ◽  
Daniele Regazzoni ◽  
Caterina Rizzi

Abstract The paper presents a software platform to design serious games for the rehabilitation of severe memory loss by means of Virtual Reality (VR). In particular, the focus is on retrograde amnesia, a condition affecting patient's quality of life usually after brain stroke. At present, the standard rehabilitation process includes showing pictures of patient's familiar environments to help recovering the memory. The proposed rehabilitation platform aims at developing patient-specific serious games for memory loss starting from the 3D scanning acquisition of familiar environments. The Occipital Structure Sensor and the Skanect application have been used for the virtualization of the real objects and the environment. A modular procedure has been designed to interface the virtual objects of each acquired environment with the modules of the game-logic developed with Unity. In addition, the developed solution makes available a set of software modules for the patient's monitoring and the data management to automatically generate medical reports, which can be easily connected to each new patient-specific serious game. A specific test has been performed to assess the main features of the VR platform and its usability. A positive feedback has been given by the involved medical personnel, who highlighted the importance of objective data to improve the ecological validity of the cognitive rehabilitation for retrograde amnesia.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document