indirect measures
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Alexander Diel ◽  
Sarah Weigelt ◽  
Karl F. Macdorman

The uncanny valley (UV) effect is a negative affective reaction to human-looking artificial entities. It hinders comfortable, trust-based interactions with android robots and virtual characters. Despite extensive research, a consensus has not formed on its theoretical basis or methodologies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess operationalizations of human likeness (independent variable) and the UV effect (dependent variable). Of 468 studies, 72 met the inclusion criteria. These studies employed 10 different stimulus creation techniques, 39 affect measures, and 14 indirect measures. Based on 247 effect sizes, a three-level meta-analysis model revealed the UV effect had a large effect size, Hedges’ g = 1.01 [0.80, 1.22]. A mixed-effects meta-regression model with creation technique as the moderator variable revealed face distortion produced the largest effect size, g = 1.46 [0.69, 2.24], followed by distinct entities, g = 1.20 [1.02, 1.38], realism render, g = 0.99 [0.62, 1.36], and morphing, g = 0.94 [0.64, 1.24]. Affective indices producing the largest effects were threatening, likable, aesthetics, familiarity , and eeriness , and indirect measures were dislike frequency, categorization reaction time, like frequency, avoidance , and viewing duration . This meta-analysis—the first on the UV effect—provides a methodological foundation and design principles for future research.

Irineu Loturco ◽  
Lucas A. Pereira ◽  
Francisco Alvarez-Dacal ◽  
Jonathan Martinez-Maseda ◽  
Tomás T. Freitas ◽  

The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between direct (sprint and change-of-direction [COD] velocities) and indirect measures (COD-deficit [CODD], deceleration deficit [DD], and sprint momentum) of speed-related performances in young badminton players. Thirty young male badminton players (age: 16.8 ± 1.4 years; body-mass: 61.5 ± 7.9 kg; height: 170 ± 5.8 cm) performed a 20-m sprint followed by 505 COD tests, on the same day. A Pearson product moment test was applied to determine the relationships among variables. A multiple regression analysis was used to verify whether the combination of CODD and DD increased the capacity to predict COD performance. Large and significant relationships were observed between COD and linear sprint velocity and sprint momentum ( r ranging from 0.62 to 0.84; P < 0.05). COD velocity revealed a moderate significant ( r  = −0.38) and a small non-significant ( r  = 0.29) relationship with CODD and DD, respectively. The multiple regression model combining CODD and DD explained 44% of the variance in COD performance. In summary, young badminton players who sprint faster are equally faster in COD manoeuvres but present higher levels of CODD and DD. Coaches should be aware that faster badminton players may exhibit greater magnitudes of CODD-DD, thus requiring specific interventions to optimize the transition between high deceleration and (re) acceleration phases.

2021 ◽  
pp. 004728752110646
Andrei P. Kirilenko ◽  
Shihan (David) Ma ◽  
Svetlana O. Stepchenkova ◽  
Lijuan Su ◽  
T. Franklin Waddell

Tourism is a powerful economic driver for communities, but there are dangers of overtourism in tourism-dependent destinations. The study proposes an approach to detect early signs of overtourism by integrating census and industry data with residents’ perceptions of tourism benefits. The indicators include industry performance, its economic impacts, and indirect measures related to quality of life. The public perceptions are collected through surveying four different tourism-dependent communities in Florida. We found that in general local residents are highly positive about the tourism industry benefits to their communities, yet many respondents would like the tourism levels reduced. Especially concerning are negative sentiments toward tourism among the younger population groups and racial minorities. The findings are interpreted as early signs of overtourism.

Jay S Johnson ◽  
Taylor L Jansen ◽  
Michaiah Galvin ◽  
Tyler C Field ◽  
Jason R Graham ◽  

Abstract Heat stress (HS) decreases lactation output in sows due to an attempt to reduce metabolic heat production. However, this negatively affects litter growth performance. Therefore, the study objective was to determine whether electronically controlled cooling pads (ECP) would improve indirect measures of lactation output (e.g., total heat production; THP) and litter growth performance in HS exposed sows. Over two repetitions, 12 multiparous (2.69 ± 0.85) lactating sows [265.4 ± 26.1 kg body weight (BW)] and litters were assigned to either an ECP (n = 3/repetition) or a non-functional ECP (NECP; n = 3/repetition) and placed into farrowing crates within indirect calorimeters from d 3.7 ± 0.5 to d 18.7 ± 0.5 of lactation. Litters were standardized across all sows (11.4 ± 0.7 piglets/litter), and sows were provided ad libitum feed and water. All sows were exposed to cyclical HS (28.27 ± 0.26°C nighttime to 33.09 ± 0.19°C daytime). On d 4, 8, 14, and 18 of lactation, indirect calorimetry was performed on each individual sow and litter to determine THP and THP/kg BW 0.75. Body temperature (TB) was measured hourly using vaginal implants, and respiration rate [RR; breaths per minute (bpm)] was measured daily at 0700, 1100, 1300, 1500, and 1900 hrs. Sow feed intake (FI) was assessed daily. Litter weights were obtained at birth, on d 4, 8, 14, and 18 of lactation, and at weaning. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX with sow and/or litter as the experimental unit. An overall decrease (P &lt; 0.01; 25 bpm) in RR and maximum daily TB (P = 0.02; 0.40°C) was observed in ECP versus NECP sows. An increase in THP (P &lt; 0.01; 20.4%) and THP/kg BW 0.75 (P &lt; 0.01; 23.1%) was observed for ECP when compared to NECP sows and litters. Litter average daily gain and weaning weight was increased (P &lt; 0.05; 25.0 and 19.2%, respectively) for ECP versus NECP litters. No FI differences were observed (P = 0.40) when comparing ECP (5.66 ± 0.31 kg/d) and NECP (5.28 ± 0.31 kg/d) sows. In summary, ECPs improve litter growth, thermoregulatory measures, and bioenergetic parameters associated with greater milk production in lactating sows exposed to cyclical HS.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260586
Cornelia Schoor ◽  
Astrid Schütz

Knowledge about how science works, trust in scientists, and the perceived utility of science currently appear to be eroding in these times in which “alternative facts” or personal experiences and opinions are used as arguments. Yet, in many situations, it would be beneficial for the individual and all of society if scientific findings were considered in decision-making. For this to happen, people have to trust in scientists and perceive science as useful. Still, in university contexts, it might not be desirable to report negative beliefs about science. In addition, science-utility and science-trust associations may differ from explicit beliefs because associations were learned through the co-occurrence of stimuli rather than being based on propositional reasoning. We developed two IATs to measure science-utility and science-trust associations in university students and tested the psychometric properties and predictive potential of these measures. In a study of 261 university students, the IATs were found to have good psychometric properties and small correlations with their corresponding self-report scales. Science-utility and science-trust associations predicted knowledge about how science works over and above self-reported beliefs. The results suggest that indirect measures are useful for assessing beliefs about science and can be used to predict outcome measures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 35-43
Nigel Isaacs

Brett's Colonists' Guide and Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge: Being a Compendium of Information by Practical Colonists, edited by Thomas W. Leys, was first published in 1883. Rated, in 1993 in a National Library Exhibition, as one of the 21 "Working Titles" that had shaped New Zealand, it provided "all Information of possible use" to new arrivals. This included how to build your own cottage – providing floor plans, a material list and an estimate of labour for four cottages (increasing to five cottages complete with a set of written specifications in the 1897 edition). These designs and quantities provide a unique opportunity to explore changes in the technology of New Zealand house construction.It has been hypothesised that in the 1890s timber construction shifted from balloon to platform framing – the basic style still used for timber framed houses. The paper will report research that examined import statistics, business records and quinquennial national censuses to explore indirect measures of changes in construction technology. It is concluded that this change occurred in the previous decade, the 1880s.

2021 ◽  
Celia Loriette ◽  
Carine De Sousa Ferreira ◽  
Simon Clavagnier ◽  
Franck Lamberton ◽  
Danielle Ibarrola ◽  

Access to higher cognitive functions in real-time remains very challenging, because these functions are internally driven and their assessment is based onto indirect measures. In addition, recent finding show that these functions are highly dynamic. Previous studies using intra-cortical recordings in monkeys, succeed to access the (x,y) position of covert spatial attention, in real-time, using classification methods applied to monkey prefrontal multi-unit activity and local field potentials. In contrast, the direct access to attention with non-invasive methods is limited to predicting the attention localisation based on a quadrant classification. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility to track covert spatial attention localization using non-invasive fMRI BOLD signals, with an unprecedented spatial resolution. We further show that the errors produced by the decoder are not randomly distributed but concentrate on the locations neighbouring the cued location and that behavioral errors correlate with weaker decoding performance. Last, we also show that the voxels contributing to the decoder precisely match the visual retinotopic organization of the occipital cortex and that single trial access to attention is limited by the intrinsic dynamics of spatial attention. Taken together, these results open the way to the development of remediation and enhancement neurofeedback protocols targeting the attentional function.

2021 ◽  
Luke Kemp

• Risk cascades are where an adverse climatic impact or trend triggers or amplifies a set of risks, including through maladaptive responses. • Climate risk cascades have already occurred and are set to increase going into the future. Some of these could be non-linear and high impact. • Risk cascades can occur through a unilinear chain – a ‘domino’ effect—or when the cascades reinforce the initial risk or driver – a ‘spiral’ or ‘cycle effect. At worst, these can snowball into crises that cross sectors and countries. • Predicting risk cascades will be inherently difficult, if not impossible. Yet we can likely understand the different pathways they may take, and the thresholds past which they are likely to occur. • Protecting again risk cascades means faster decarbonisation, supporting the most vulnerable, and building more resilient socio-economic systems. This will require indirect measures, such as remedying inequalities.

2021 ◽  
Philip To ◽  
Sea On Lee ◽  
Yingzi Xia ◽  
Taylor Devlin ◽  
Karen G Fleming ◽  

The journey by which proteins navigate their energy landscapes to their native structures is complex, involving (and sometimes requiring) many cellular factors and processes operating in partnership with a given polypeptide chain's intrinsic energy landscape. The cytosolic environment and its complement of chaperones play critical roles in granting proteins safe passage to their native states; however, the complexity of this medium has generally precluded biophysical techniques from interrogating protein folding under cellular-like conditions for single proteins, let alone entire proteomes. Here, we develop a limited-proteolysis mass spectrometry approach paired within an isotope-labeling strategy to globally monitor the structures of refolding E. coli proteins in the cytosolic medium and with the chaperones, GroEL/ES (Hsp60) and DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE (Hsp70/40). GroEL can refold the majority (85%) of the E. coli proteins for which we have data, and is particularly important for restoring acidic proteins and proteins with high molecular weight, trends that come to light because our assay measures the structural outcome of the refolding process itself, rather than indirect measures like binding or aggregation. For the most part, DnaK and GroEL refold a similar set of proteins, supporting the view that despite their vastly different structures, these two chaperones both unfold misfolded states, as one mechanism in common. Finally, we identify a cohort of proteins that are intransigent to being refolded with either chaperone. The data support a model in which chaperone-nonrefolders have evolved to fold efficiently once and only once, co-translationally, and remain kinetically trapped in their native conformations.

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