Abstract. The first goal of the present study was to explore how 21 voice measures related to self-reported personality and communication styles. The second goal was to test the assertion of Trait Activation Theory (TAT) that traits are activated in relevant situations and that verbal behavior is the result of an interplay between individual differences and situations. The voice of 138 participants was measured in the lab via steady voice and continuous speech tasks, whereas personality and communication styles were self-reported using the HEXACO and Communication Styles Inventory. To test TAT, four scenarios were developed to activate the communication styles of Informality and Expressiveness. It was hypothesized that the activated communication styles will interact with relevant situations and will be expressed through changes in voice (i.e., pitch variation). Regarding the first goal, an explorative approach revealed that voice characteristics are informative mainly for the personality traits of Openness to Experience, Emotionality, and Conscientiousness and the communication styles of Emotionality and Questioningness. Regarding the second goal, the interactions between situations and communication styles provided mixed support for TAT. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
Abstract. Absorption and mindfulness are personality traits associated with experiencing states of highly-focused attention. Despite this apparent commonality, these two traits have rarely been directly compared, and little is known about what differentiates absorbed from mindful states. The present study explored how individual differences in the cognitive processes of attentional control and self-related processing relate to absorption and mindfulness. Participants completed four self-report measures assessing absorption, mindfulness, style of attentional control over internal/external stimuli, and self-related processing. Absorption and mindfulness were negatively correlated in our sample. Absorption was predicted by a propensity for stimulus-driven attention to external stimuli and frequent engagement in self-reflection without gaining insight into those reflections. Mindfulness was predicted by a propensity for goal-driven attentional control over external stimuli and a tendency to engage in insightful self-reflective processing. Our findings can inform research efforts to further elucidate cognitive mechanisms underlying the relationships of absorption and mindfulness with mental health.
Abstract. Despite corporal punishment being associated with negative developmental outcomes for children, it is commonly practiced in Malaysian courts, schools, and homes. This study examined the relationships among the Dark Tetrad personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, sadism), anger rumination, and attitudes toward corporal punishment of children. Two hundred sixty-three participants from a university and community sample in Malaysia completed measures of attitudes toward child corporal punishment, the Short Dark Tetrad, and the Anger Rumination Scale. Participants also answered questions about whether they received corporal punishment at home and school as children. Correlation analyses showed that Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism were positively associated with acceptance of corporal punishment. Further regression analyses revealed that having received corporal punishment at home – but not at school – during childhood as well as trait Machiavellianism and sadism predicted accepting attitudes toward corporal punishment. Identifying factors that influence people’s attitudes regarding corporal punishment and discipline behaviors could yield new insights into parenting education programs and policies.
Abstract. The current paper presents a detailed examination of a lay theory perspective on the Sensory-Processing-Sensitivity (SPS) personality profile within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. The lay SPS personality profile was assessed by asking self-identified highly sensitive people to rate themselves on a Five-Factor Model questionnaire (NEO-PI-3). We applied the NEO-PI-3 norms (domains and facets) and examined the inter-rater agreement of the facets. The sample consisted of 560 (female: 86.43%, Mage = 37.36 years, SDage = 6.64 years, 18.17–47.42 years) self-identified highly sensitive adults. Six facets, in particular, stood out with good and very good inter-rater agreement: participants fell within the highest 23% of the population on facets Fantasy, Aesthetics, Feelings (Openness to Experience); Anxiety, Depression (Neuroticism); and the lowest 23% of the population on the facet Gregariousness (Extraversion).
Abstract. We explored competing models using bifactor item response theory (IRT) analyses to determine the relationship between trait measures of trust, distrust, and suspicion. The model with a general factor for all three scales fits the data best. We explored the relationship of the emergent general factor by correlating it with two latent traits: Agreeableness and the Trust facet of Agreeableness. The exploratory findings showed evidence that the general factor from the best-fitting model was practically identical to the Trust facet of Agreeableness. We concluded that trait trust, distrust, and suspicion reside on a continuum represented by the general factor, which is dispositional trust.
Abstract. The Dark Triad personality traits have previously been linked with dysfunctional types of procrastination (i.e., delaying certain tasks). From an evolutionary perspective, procrastination is recognized for facilitating a fast life history strategy. The present study investigated links between active and passive procrastination and the extended Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism). Participants ( N = 357) were invited via Prolific data collection platform and Survey Circle research sites to participate in an online survey exploring personality and procrastination. Path analyses revealed that all Dark Tetrad traits positively predicted several aspects of active procrastination only. Narcissism emerged as the only negative predictor of passive procrastination. Rather than linking these traits with dysfunctional procrastination types only, our results highlight the importance of considering the Dark Tetrad about functional forms of procrastination, which may be more beneficial for facilitating a fast life history strategy.
Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between the Big Five personality traits and generalized self-efficacy. Data for the meta-analysis were collected from 53 studies, which included 60 independent samples, 188 effect sizes, and 28,704 participants. Lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with greater generalized self-efficacy. Personality traits and generalized self-efficacy measurements, as well as age, moderated the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and generalized self-efficacy. The study extends current knowledge on the associations between personality traits and generalized self-efficacy.
Abstract. Data protection became an increasingly important topic in today’s digital society. With regard to messaging applications, WhatsApp especially has been at the center of discussion. Despite the existence of alternative messaging applications seemingly protecting one’s data more than WhatsApp does, individuals seem to rarely use these alternatives. The present study, therefore, investigated personality differences between individuals using WhatsApp versus alternative messaging applications which are deemed more protective of one’s data. A total of N = 7,874 individuals ( n = 3,992 men) participated in the present online survey. All of them provided information on whether they used WhatsApp and/or an alternative messaging application because WhatsApp was deemed to be non-data-protective. Additionally, they completed the Big Five Inventory. Most participants (69.27%) reported using WhatsApp but no alternative messaging application due to data protection concerns. This group showed the lowest scores on Openness. The group using neither WhatsApp nor another messaging application due to data protection concerns regarding WhatsApp showed the lowest scores on Extraversion. The highest scores on Agreeableness were found in the group using WhatsApp and at least one alternative messaging application due to WhatsApp-related data protection concerns. These results reveal initial insights into who is using seemingly data protective versus non-data-protective messaging applications. Personality may not be the only factor influencing the decisions about data protective messaging application use.
Abstract. Dweck’s theory posits that intelligence mindsets have significant implications in individuals’ self-esteem and previous studies have also demonstrated a consistent link between these two constructs ( Conigrave et al., 2019 ; King, 2012 ; Zhao et al., 2019 ). However, little is known about their relationship across time. Does a fixed intelligence mindset contribute to lower levels of self-esteem or the opposite is true, viewing one’s abilities as something that is incapable of improvement is merely a symptom of low self-esteem? The present study sought to answer these questions by investigating the association between fixed intelligence mindset and self-esteem across a two-year period. The final sample of the study consisted of 103 freshmen college students aged between 18 and 36 years and participants were predominantly female ( N = 91) psychology students (56%). Cross-lagged hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the relationship between fixed intelligence mindset and self-esteem might be unidirectional since Time 1 fixed intelligence mindset predicted lower levels of self-esteem at Time 2 even when initial self-esteem and self-efficacy were accounted for. In contrast, Time 1 self-esteem showed no significant associations with Time 2 fixed intelligence mindset. Although the present study offers new insight about the prospective effects of fixed intelligence mindset, results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size.