Additive Manufacturing (AM) is widely used to fabricate phononic crystals (PnCs) in recent years. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing (FSAM) is a new-type solid state fabrication technology which is fusion free with low distortions. FSAM was selected to fabricate the designed PnCs. The manufactured specimen was distorted due to the temperature rise in the manufacturing process and the band gaps (BGs) were changed with the distortions. Results indicate that the band gap of the PnCs moves to be in higher frequency domain due to the residual distortions of the manufactured PnCs. The residual distortion of FSAM PnCs is 2.77 times smaller in comparison with the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding. So, the differences of the band gap between the designed PnCs and the FSAM specimen are only in the range of 0.15%- 0.55% due to the lower temperature rise in FSAM. The further analysis shows that the change of the BGs is caused by the growth of the inertia moment for the FSAM PnCs. With the increase of the rotating speed in FSAM, the residual distortion of the FSAM PnCs is increased due to the increase of the welding temperature. This can lead to the increase of the inertia moment, which is the key reason for the increase of the BG characteristics of the FSAM PnCs.
The band gap characteristics of phononic crystal is influenced by material and structure etc. Based on the transmission matrix method, the first band gap characteristics of one-dimensional phononic crystal were numerical simulation with different ratio, and these phononic crystals were made form aluminum, lead, steel, carbon and epoxy resin materials. These results show that phononic crystal structure made from high density materilal are more easier to form wide band gap, and there are also more easier to form wide band gap under the same proportion. These results provide theoretical basis for the design of one-dimensional phononic crystal devices.
The viscous effects on the band gap characteristics of the piezoelectric/viscous liquid phononic crystals are studied. The expressions of the generalized eigenvalue equation for the cylindrical phononic crystals are derived. Numerical calculations are performed to discuss the band gap characteristics with different filling ratios and viscous damping parameters. Form the results, it can be observed that the out-of-plane mode will appear, which caused by the viscous effects. Both of the real and imaginary parts of frequencies will increase with the filling fraction becoming larger. The maximum of the normalized band gap width is achieved by f = 0.5. Furthermore, the band gap edges become higher with the viscous damping parameter increasing, especially for higher band gaps.
A new two-dimensional locally resonant phononic crystal with microcavity structure is proposed. The acoustic wave band gap characteristics of this new structure are studied using finite element method. At the same time, the corresponding displacement eigenmodes of the band edges of the lowest band gap and the transmission spectrum are calculated. The results proved that phononic crystals with microcavity structure exhibited complete band gaps in low-frequency range. The eigenfrequency of the lower edge of the first gap is lower than no microcavity structure. However, for no microcavity structure type of quadrilateral phononic crystal plate, the second band gap disappeared and the frequency range of the first band gap is relatively narrow. The main reason for appearing low-frequency band gaps is that the proposed phononic crystal introduced the local resonant microcavity structure. This study provides a good support for engineering application such as low-frequency vibration attenuation and noise control.