Additive Manufacturing (AM) is widely used to fabricate phononic crystals (PnCs) in recent years. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing (FSAM) is a new-type solid state fabrication technology which is fusion free with low distortions. FSAM was selected to fabricate the designed PnCs. The manufactured specimen was distorted due to the temperature rise in the manufacturing process and the band gaps (BGs) were changed with the distortions. Results indicate that the band gap of the PnCs moves to be in higher frequency domain due to the residual distortions of the manufactured PnCs. The residual distortion of FSAM PnCs is 2.77 times smaller in comparison with the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding. So, the differences of the band gap between the designed PnCs and the FSAM specimen are only in the range of 0.15%- 0.55% due to the lower temperature rise in FSAM. The further analysis shows that the change of the BGs is caused by the growth of the inertia moment for the FSAM PnCs. With the increase of the rotating speed in FSAM, the residual distortion of the FSAM PnCs is increased due to the increase of the welding temperature. This can lead to the increase of the inertia moment, which is the key reason for the increase of the BG characteristics of the FSAM PnCs.
In this article, the wave finite element method (WFEM) is used to calculate the band gap characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) periodic double-wall grillages (DwGs), which are verified by the grillage model vibration measurement experiment and finite element calculation. To obtain the band gap characteristics of periodic DwGs, the finite element calculation model is established according to the lattice and energy band theory and the characteristic equation of the periodic unit cell under the given wave vector condition is solved based on Bloch theorem. Then, the frequency transfer functions of finite-length manufactured and finite element models are obtained to verify the band gap characteristics of periodic DwGs. Finally, the effects of material parameters and structural forms on band gap characteristics and transfer functions are analyzed, which can provide a reference for engineering structure vibration and noise reduction design.
AbstractPeriodic structures exhibit unique band gap characteristics by virtue of which they behave as vibro-acoustic filters thereby allowing only waves within a certain frequency range to pass through. In this paper, lateral and vertical flexural wave propagation and vibration control of a railway track periodically supported on rigid sleepers using fastenings are studied in depth. The dispersion relations in both lateral and vertical directions are obtained using the Floquet-Bloch theorem and the resulting dispersion curves are verified using finite element models. Afterwards, tuned mass dampers (TMDs) with different mass ratios are designed to control vibrations of the examined rail in both the directions. Moreover, the influence of damping of rail and resonators on band gap characteristics is investigated. As a replacement to the conventional TMD, a novel possibility to control vibration relies on using another existing rail as a lateral distributed resonator (LDR). Although the effectiveness of LDR is lower than that of localized resonators, the former represents a simple and promising way to control vibrations. Efficacy of the proposed control methods is finally verified by applying a random Gaussian white noise input. The study presented here is useful to understand the propagation and attenuation behavior of flexural waves and to develop efficient and novel vibration control strategies for track structures.
Periodic structures have been studied extensively for their wave-filtering capabilities as they exhibit frequency band-gaps. The band-gap characteristics of flexural periodic structures, consisting of periodic cavities, depend on the geometry (shape and size) of cavities. The present work brings out experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of geometry of periodicity on the vibration characteristics of one-dimensional periodic structures. A procedure for prediction of the experimentally observed frequency band-gaps, with the help of eigenfrequency analysis, has been presented. Further, a novel concept of ‘real’ and ‘pseudo’ band-gaps has been theorized. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the best configuration of a periodic structure for maximum vibration attenuation has been arrived at. The work can find application in the design of frames and channels, made of periodic structures, where periodicity can be introduced to reduce vibration transmission in desired frequency bands. It can also reduce the requirement of extensive prototype trials for the selection of suitable periodic geometry.