Paeoniflorin is a promising natural monomer for neurodegenerative diseases via modulation of Ca2+ and ROS homeostasis

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 97-102
Wei Peng ◽  
Yunhui Chen ◽  
Steve Tumilty ◽  
Lizhou Liu ◽  
Ling Luo ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 55 ◽  
pp. 119-131 ◽  
Bernadette Carroll ◽  
Graeme Hewitt ◽  
Viktor I. Korolchuk

Autophagy is a process of lysosome-dependent intracellular degradation that participates in the liberation of resources including amino acids and energy to maintain homoeostasis. Autophagy is particularly important in stress conditions such as nutrient starvation and any perturbation in the ability of the cell to activate or regulate autophagy can lead to cellular dysfunction and disease. An area of intense research interest is the role and indeed the fate of autophagy during cellular and organismal ageing. Age-related disorders are associated with increased cellular stress and assault including DNA damage, reduced energy availability, protein aggregation and accumulation of damaged organelles. A reduction in autophagy activity has been observed in a number of ageing models and its up-regulation via pharmacological and genetic methods can alleviate age-related pathologies. In particular, autophagy induction can enhance clearance of toxic intracellular waste associated with neurodegenerative diseases and has been comprehensively demonstrated to improve lifespan in yeast, worms, flies, rodents and primates. The situation, however, has been complicated by the identification that autophagy up-regulation can also occur during ageing. Indeed, in certain situations, reduced autophagosome induction may actually provide benefits to ageing cells. Future studies will undoubtedly improve our understanding of exactly how the multiple signals that are integrated to control appropriate autophagy activity change during ageing, what affect this has on autophagy and to what extent autophagy contributes to age-associated pathologies. Identification of mechanisms that influence a healthy lifespan is of economic, medical and social importance in our ‘ageing’ world.

2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 645-675
Parasuraman Padmanabhan ◽  
Mathangi Palanivel ◽  
Ajay Kumar ◽  
Domokos Máthé ◽  
George K. Radda ◽  

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), affect the ageing population worldwide and while severely impairing the quality of life of millions, they also cause a massive economic burden to countries with progressively ageing populations. Parallel with the search for biomarkers for early detection and prediction, the pursuit for therapeutic approaches has become growingly intensive in recent years. Various prospective therapeutic approaches have been explored with an emphasis on early prevention and protection, including, but not limited to, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy. Many pharmacological interventions have proved to be promising novel avenues, but successful applications are often hampered by the poor delivery of the therapeutics across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). To overcome this challenge, nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery has been considered as a promising option, as NP-based drug delivery systems can be functionalized to target specific cell surface receptors and to achieve controlled and long-term release of therapeutics to the target tissue. The usefulness of NPs for loading and delivering of drugs has been extensively studied in the context of NDDs, and their biological efficacy has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical animal models. Efforts have also been made towards the development of NPs which can be used for targeting the BBB and various cell types in the brain. The main focus of this review is to briefly discuss the advantages of functionalized NPs as promising theranostic agents for the diagnosis and therapy of NDDs. We also summarize the results of diverse studies that specifically investigated the usage of different NPs for the treatment of NDDs, with a specific emphasis on AD and PD, and the associated pathophysiological changes. Finally, we offer perspectives on the existing challenges of using NPs as theranostic agents and possible futuristic approaches to improve them.

2008 ◽  
Vol 35 (S 01) ◽  
T Frank ◽  
K Meuer ◽  
C Pitzer ◽  
J Schulz ◽  
M Bähr ◽  

2013 ◽  
Vol 46 (06) ◽  
I Denzer ◽  
M Pischetsrieder ◽  
K Leuner

2020 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
S. A. Sorokina ◽  
Yu. Yu. Stroilova ◽  
V. I. Muronets ◽  
Z. B. Shifrina ◽  

Among the compounds able to efficiently inhibit the amyloid aggregation of proteins and decompose the amyloid aggregates that cause neurodegenerative diseases, of particular interest are dendrimers, which represent individual macromolecules with the hypercrosslinked architectures and given molecular parameters. This short review outlines the peculiarities of the antiamyloid activity of dendrimers and discusses the effect of dendrimer structures and external factors on their antiamyloid properties. The potential of application of dendrimers in further investigations on the aggregation processes of amyloid proteins as the compounds that exhibit the remarkable antiamyloid activity is evaluated.

2020 ◽  
Vol 6 (5) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Chinonye A Maduagwuna ◽  

Study background: Chronic neuroinflammation is a common emerging hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly and is characterized by loss of memory and other cognitive functions.

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