neurodegenerative diseases
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2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 97-102
Wei Peng ◽  
Yunhui Chen ◽  
Steve Tumilty ◽  
Lizhou Liu ◽  
Ling Luo ◽  

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 363
Marialena Chrysanthou ◽  
Ignacio Miro Estruch ◽  
Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens ◽  
Harry J. Wichers ◽  
Tamara Hoppenbrouwers

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be present in food or be endogenously produced in biological systems. Their formation has been associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The implication of AGEs in neurodegeneration is related to their ability to bind to AGE-specific receptors and the ability of their precursors to induce the so-called “dicarbonyl stress”, resulting in cross-linking and protein damage. However, the mode of action underlying their role in neurodegeneration remains unclear. While some research has been carried out in observational clinical studies, further in vitro studies may help elucidate these underlying modes of action. This review presents and discusses in vitro methodologies used in research on the potential role of AGEs in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The overview reveals the main concepts linking AGEs to neurodegeneration, the current findings, and the available and advisable in vitro models to study their role. Moreover, the major questions regarding the role of AGEs in neurodegenerative diseases and the challenges and discrepancies in the research field are discussed.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 194
Gustavo Vaz ◽  
Adryana Clementino ◽  
Evgenia Mitsou ◽  
Elena Ferrari ◽  
Francesca Buttini ◽  

The nose-to-brain delivery of neuroprotective natural compounds is an appealing approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Nanoemulsions containing curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QU) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized physicochemically and structurally. A negative (CQ_NE−), a positive (CQ_NE+), and a gel (CQ_NEgel) formulation were developed. The mean particle size of the CQ_NE− and CQ_NE+ was below 120 nm, while this increased to 240 nm for the CQ_NEgel. The formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency and protected the CUR/QU from biological/chemical degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the CUR/QU were located at the interface of the oil phase in the proximity of the surfactant layer. The cytotoxicity studies showed that the formulations containing CUR/QU protected human nasal cells from the toxicity evidenced for blank NEs. No permeation across an in vitro model nasal epithelium was evidenced for CUR/QU, probably due to their poor water-solubility and instability in physiological buffers. However, the nasal cells’ drug uptake showed that the total amount of CUR/QU in the cells was related to the NE characteristics (CQ_NE− > CQ_NE+ > CQ_NEgel). The method used allowed the obtainment of nanocarriers of an appropriate size for nasal administration. The treatment of the cells showed the protection of cellular viability, holding promise as an anti-inflammatory treatment able to prevent neurodegenerative diseases.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 300
Chidambaram Ramanathan ◽  
Thomas Lackie ◽  
Drake H. Williams ◽  
Paul S. Simone ◽  
Yufeng Zhang ◽  

As a redox-sensitive coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism and homeostasis. Low NAD+ levels are linked to multiple disease states, including age-related diseases, such as metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, restoring/increasing NAD+ levels in vivo has emerged as an important intervention targeting age-related neurodegenerative diseases. One of the widely studied approaches to increase NAD+ levels in vivo is accomplished by using NAD+ precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Oral administration of NMN has been shown to successfully increase NAD+ levels in a variety of tissues; however, it remains unclear whether NMN can cross the blood–brain barrier to increase brain NAD+ levels. This study evaluated the effects of oral NMN administration on NAD+ levels in C57/B6J mice brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that oral gavage of 400 mg/kg NMN successfully increases brain NAD+ levels in mice after 45 min. These findings provide evidence that NMN may be used as an intervention to increase NAD+ levels in the brain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elidie Beard ◽  
Sylvain Lengacher ◽  
Sara Dias ◽  
Pierre J. Magistretti ◽  
Charles Finsterwald

Astrocytes play key roles in the regulation of brain energy metabolism, which has a major impact on brain functions, including memory, neuroprotection, resistance to oxidative stress and homeostatic tone. Energy demands of the brain are very large, as they continuously account for 20–25% of the whole body’s energy consumption. Energy supply of the brain is tightly linked to neuronal activity, providing the origin of the signals detected by the widely used functional brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. In particular, neuroenergetic coupling is regulated by astrocytes through glutamate uptake that triggers astrocytic aerobic glycolysis and leads to glucose uptake and lactate release, a mechanism known as the Astrocyte Neuron Lactate Shuttle. Other neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide mobilize glycogen, the reserve for glucose exclusively localized in astrocytes, also resulting in lactate release. Lactate is then transferred to neurons where it is used, after conversion to pyruvate, as a rapid energy substrate, and also as a signal that modulates neuronal excitability, homeostasis, and the expression of survival and plasticity genes. Importantly, glycolysis in astrocytes and more generally cerebral glucose metabolism progressively deteriorate in aging and age-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. This decreased glycolysis actually represents a common feature of several neurological pathologies. Here, we review the critical role of astrocytes in the regulation of brain energy metabolism, and how dysregulation of astrocyte-mediated metabolic pathways is involved in brain hypometabolism. Further, we summarize recent efforts at preclinical and clinical stages to target brain hypometabolism for the development of new therapeutic interventions in age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Qian Li ◽  
Yi Feng ◽  
Yingchao Xue ◽  
Xiping Zhan ◽  
Yi Fu ◽  

Abstract Background Spinal cord motor neurons (MNs) from human iPS cells (iPSCs) have wide applications in disease modeling and therapeutic development for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other MN-associated neurodegenerative diseases. We need highly efficient MN differentiation strategies for generating iPSC-derived disease models that closely recapitulate the genetic and phenotypic complexity of ALS. An important application of these models is to understand molecular mechanisms of action of FDA-approved ALS drugs that only show modest clinical efficacy. Novel mechanistic insights will help us design optimal therapeutic strategies together with predictive biomarkers to achieve better efficacy. Methods We induce efficient MN differentiation from iPSCs in 4 days using synthetic mRNAs coding two transcription factors (Ngn2 and Olig2) with phosphosite modification. These MNs after extensive characterization were applied in electrophysiological and neurotoxicity assays as well as transcriptomic analysis, to study the neuroprotective effect and molecular mechanisms of edaravone, an FDA-approved drug for ALS, for improving its clinical efficacy. Results We generate highly pure and functional mRNA-induced MNs (miMNs) from control and ALS iPSCs, as well as embryonic stem cells. Edaravone alleviates H2O2-induced neurotoxicity and electrophysiological dysfunction in miMNs, demonstrating its neuroprotective effect that was also found in the glutamate-induced miMN neurotoxicity model. Guided by the transcriptomic analysis, we show a previously unrecognized effect of edaravone to induce the GDNF receptor RET and the GDNF/RET neurotrophic signaling in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a clinically translatable strategy to activate this key neuroprotective signaling. Notably, edaravone can replace required neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF) to support long-term miMN survival and maturation, further supporting the neurotrophic function of edaravone-activated signaling. Furthermore, we show that edaravone and GDNF combined treatment more effectively protects miMNs from H2O2-induced neurotoxicity than single treatment, suggesting a potential combination strategy for ALS treatment. Conclusions This study provides methodology to facilitate iPSC differentiation and disease modeling. Our discoveries will facilitate the development of optimal edaravone-based therapies for ALS and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Graphical abstract

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