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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-76
Abdul Mughni ◽  
Ahmad Fathi Fuadi ◽  
Nanda Daniswara

Background: Ureteral injury is an uncommon complication of the colorectal procedure. The colorectal procedure is the second most common cause of ureteral injury. The laparoscopic approach for colorectal surgery has contributed to the increase of ureteral injury. Delayed diagnosis of the iatrogenic ureteral injury is associated with higher morbidity. However, the early diagnosis of ureteral injury during the operation is difficult. We presented an early recognition and laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic ureteral injury during laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery cases and the strategy for recognizing and managing that injury for the surgeon.Case Presentation: A Male, 34 years old, had an iatrogenic ureteral injury during laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. The left distal ureter was transected by an energy device. The diagnosis of ureteral injury was prompt. The repair of the ureter was done endo-laparoscopically. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on day 6 after surgery.Conclusion: The iatrogenic ureteral injury, although uncommon, is a serious complication of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Direct visual identification of the distal ureter is mandatory in every rectal surgery. The iatrogenic ureteral injury is not an indication for open conversion when there is an adequate resource to do the endo-laparoscopic ureteral repair.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Whitaker Cohn ◽  
Mikhail Melnik ◽  
Calvin Huang ◽  
Bruce Teter ◽  
Sujyoti Chandra ◽  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, yet there is no cure or diagnostics available prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-delimited particles that are released from almost all types of cell. Genome-wide association studies have linked multiple AD genetic risk factors to microglia-specific pathways. It is plausible that microglia-derived EVs may play a role in the progression of AD by contributing to the dissemination of insoluble pathogenic proteins, such as tau and Aβ. Despite the potential utility of EVs as a diagnostic tool, our knowledge of human brain EV subpopulations is limited. Here we present a method for isolating microglial CD11b-positive small EVs from cryopreserved human brain tissue, as well as an integrated multiomics analysis of microglial EVs enriched from the parietal cortex of four late-stage AD (Braak V-VI) and three age-matched normal/low pathology (NL) cases. This integrated analysis revealed 1,000 proteins, 594 lipids, and 105 miRNAs using shotgun proteomics, targeted lipidomics, and NanoString nCounter technology, respectively. The results showed a significant reduction in the abundance of homeostatic microglia markers P2RY12 and TMEM119, and increased levels of disease-associated microglia markers FTH1 and TREM2, in CD11b-positive EVs from AD brain compared to NL cases. Tau abundance was significantly higher in AD brain-derived microglial EVs. These changes were accompanied by the upregulation of synaptic and neuron-specific proteins in the AD group. Levels of free cholesterol were elevated in microglial EVs from the AD brain. Lipidomic analysis also revealed a proinflammatory lipid profile, endolysosomal dysfunction, and a significant AD-associated decrease in levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing polyunsaturated lipids, suggesting a potential defect in acyl-chain remodeling. Additionally, four miRNAs associated with immune and cellular senescence signaling pathways were significantly upregulated in the AD group. Our data suggest that loss of the homeostatic microglia signature in late AD stages may be accompanied by endolysosomal impairment and the release of undigested neuronal and myelin debris, including tau, through extracellular vesicles. We suggest that the analysis of microglia-derived EVs has merit for identifying novel EV-associated biomarkers and providing a framework for future larger-scale multiomics studies on patient-derived cell-type-specific EVs.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1807
Wouter J. C. Feitz ◽  
Samuel Suntharalingham ◽  
Meraj Khan ◽  
Carolina G. Ortiz-Sandoval ◽  
Nades Palaniyar ◽  

Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is the most common cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), one of the main causes of acute kidney injury in children. Stx plays an important role in endothelium damage and pathogenesis of STEC-HUS. However, the effects of Stx on neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation are not well understood. In this study, we investigated how Stx2a affects NET formation and NETotic pathways (NADPH or NOX-dependent and -independent) using neutrophils isolated from healthy donors and patients with STEC-HUS, during the acute and recovery phase of the disease. Stx2a dose-dependently induced NETosis in neutrophils isolated from both healthy controls and STEC-HUS patients. NETosis kinetics and mechanistic data with pathway-specific inhibitors including diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)-, ERK-, and P38-inhibitors showed that Stx2a-induced NETosis via the NOX-dependent pathway. Neutrophils from STEC-HUS patients in the acute phase showed less ROS and NETs formation compared to neutrophils of the recovery phase of the disease and in healthy controls. NETs induced by Stx2a may lead to the activation of endothelial cells, which might contribute to the manifestation of thrombotic microangiopathy in STEC-HUS.

Sunil Basukala ◽  
Bishnu Pathak ◽  
Sabina Rijal ◽  
Bibek Karki ◽  
Narayan Thapa

Subclavian Steal Syndrome (SSS) is a rare vascular syndrome caused due to proximal occlusion or stenosis of subclavian or innominate artery. It is usually asymptomatic but occasionally may present with vertebrobasilar insufficiency and/or upper limb ischemia. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1807
Sara Merlo ◽  
Simona Federica Spampinato ◽  
Dmitry Lim

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, a socio-economic burden destined to worsen with increased population aging [...]

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Iris Nathalie San Román Arispe ◽  
Josep Ramón Marsal Mora ◽  
Oriol Yuguero Torres ◽  
Marta Ortega Bravo

AbstractNon traumatic chest pain is the second most common cause of attention at the Emergency Departments (ED). The objective is to compare the effectiveness of HEART risk score and the risk of having a Major Adverse Cardiovascular Event (MACE) during the following 6 weeks in ‘Acute Non-traumatic Chest Pain’ (ANTCP) patients of an ED in Lleida (Spain). The ANTCP patient cohort was defined using medical data from January 2015 to January 2016. A retrospective study was performed among 300 ANTCP patients. Diagnostic accuracy to predict MACE, HEART risk score effectiveness and patient risk stratification were analysed on the ANTCP Cohort. HEART risk score was conducted on ANTCP Cohort data and patients were stratified as low-risk (n = 116, 38.7%), moderate-risk (n = 164, 54.7%) and high-risk (n = 20, 6.7%); differently from the assessment performed by 'Current Emergency Department Guidelines’ (CEDG) on the same patients: low risk and discharge (n = 56, 18.7%), medium risk and need of complementary tests (n = 137, 45.7%) and high risk and hospital admission (n = 107, 35.7%).The incidence of MACE was 2.5%, 20.7% and 100% in low, moderate and high-risk, respectively. Discrimination and accuracy indexes were moderate (AUC = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.67–0.80). Clustering moderate-high risk groups by MACE incidence showed an 89.5% of sensitivity. Data obtained from this study suggests that HEART risk score stratified better ‘acute non-traumatic chest pain’ (ANTCP) patients in an Emergency Department (ED) compared with ‘Current Emergency Department Guidelines’ (CEDG) at the Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova (HUAV). HEART score would reduce the number of subsequent consultations, unnecessary admissions and complementary tests.Trial registration: Retrospectively registered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Karen Bohmwald ◽  
Catalina A. Andrade ◽  
Nicolás M. S. Gálvez ◽  
Valentina P. Mora ◽  
José T. Muñoz ◽  

Reports regarding brain inflammation, known as encephalitis, have shown an increasing frequency during the past years. Encephalitis is a relevant concern to public health due to its high morbidity and mortality. Infectious or autoimmune diseases are the most common cause of encephalitis. The clinical symptoms of this pathology can vary depending on the brain zone affected, with mild ones such as fever, headache, confusion, and stiff neck, or severe ones, such as seizures, weakness, hallucinations, and coma, among others. Encephalitis can affect individuals of all ages, but it is frequently observed in pediatric and elderly populations, and the most common causes are viral infections. Several viral agents have been described to induce encephalitis, such as arboviruses, rhabdoviruses, enteroviruses, herpesviruses, retroviruses, orthomyxoviruses, orthopneumovirus, and coronaviruses, among others. Once a neurotropic virus reaches the brain parenchyma, the resident cells such as neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, can be infected, promoting the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules and the subsequent immune cell infiltration that leads to brain damage. After resolving the viral infection, the local immune response can remain active, contributing to long-term neuropsychiatric disorders, neurocognitive impairment, and degenerative diseases. In this article, we will discuss how viruses can reach the brain, the impact of viral encephalitis on brain function, and we will focus especially on the neurocognitive sequelae reported even after viral clearance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Piotr Buda ◽  
Joanna Friedman-Gruszczyńska ◽  
Janusz Książyk

Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute, generalized vasculitis, is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in childhood. The incidence of KD is increasing worldwide. There are numerous international treatment guidelines. Our study aims to perform the first one so far comparison of them. While the gold standard therapy remains still the same (intravenous immunoglobulins and aspirin), there is currently a lack of evidence for choosing optimal treatment for high-risk patients and refractory KD. In this review, we also discuss the treatment of complications of KD and Kawasaki-like phenotypes, present an anti-inflammatory treatment in the light of new scientific data, and present novel potential therapeutic targets for KD.

2021 ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Xuejing Duan ◽  
Hongyue Wang ◽  
Yang Sun ◽  
Wei Zhao ◽  

Abstract Background Bioprostheses are the commonest prostheses used for valve replacement in the western world. The major flaw of bioprostheses is the occurrence of structural valve deterioration (SVD). The objective of this study was to assess in a large cohort of patients the pathologic features of porcine aortic valve (PAV) SVD based on histomorphological and immunopathological features.Methods and materials 109 cases of resected PAV were observed grossly and histopathologically. The type and amount of infiltrated cells were evaluated in the different type of bioprosthetic SVD by immunohistochemical staining . Results The most common cause of SVD was calcification, leaflet dehiscence and tear (23.9%,19.3% and 18.3%, respectively). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that vimentin positive cells aggregated around the calcified area in calcified PAV. Macrophages infiltrated in the calcified, lacerated and dehiscence PAV. However, MMP-1 expression was mainly found in the lacerated PAV. The VIM(+)/SMA(-) and VIM(+)/CD31(-) cells were found in PAV. The endothelia rate of dehiscence leaflets were higher than that of calcified and lacerated leaflets. A large amount of CD31 positive cells aggregated in the spongy layer in the lacerated and dehiscence PAV. Conclusions Cell regeneration and infiltration is a double edged sword for the PAV deterioration. Valve interstitial cells (VIC) have essential role in PAV calcification. Macrophages infiltration maybe involve in the different type of SVD, but only MMP-1expression involves in leaflets laceration. VIM(+)/CD31(-) valve endothelial cells (VECs) protect the PAV against the formation of calcified and lacerated lesions. The existence of untransformed VECs maybe one of pathologic substrate of PAV tear and dehiscence, although they can prevent VICs activation and subsequent valve fibrosis and calcification.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
Manish Keshwani ◽  
Habib Md Reazaul Karim ◽  
Suresh Nagalikar ◽  
Deepak Kumar Biswal ◽  
Samarjit Dey

Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder, especially in the frail elderly population. With the increasing number of surgeries in the aging population, hyponatremia is frequently encountered by anesthesiologists and surgeons. Unfortunately, management of hyponatremia is often complex in the elderly population as it is often multifactorial, and they are physiologically susceptible. While it is well known that preoperative hyponatremia is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality, a lack of recommendations or guidelines adds to the dilemma in managing such cases. The most common cause of chronic hyponatremia in the elderly is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which can be resistant to conventional treatment. On the other hand, paraneoplastic SIADH leading to hyponatremia is rare, and surgery may be the only option available for its correction. We present a case of a 78- years-gentleman to highlight such a dilemma. He was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and had chronic refractory severe hyponatremia despite treatment with fluid restriction, low dose hydrocortisone, tolvaptan, and 3% sodium chloride.

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