Background. Because of the implications of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) in keratoconus (KC), we describe a differential expression of RAGE transcripts and proteins in corneal tissues and tears of KC and healthy patients. Methods. Using a case-controlled study, corneal epitheliums and tears of KC and healthy subjects were obtained during corneal collagen cross-linking and photorefractive keratectomy (PKR) and during usual consultations. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) and Western-Blot were performed to analyze RAGE transcripts and proteins’ expression in corneal tissues and tears. Results. One hundred and six patients were included in this study. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: 56 KC (25 corneal epithelium and 31 tears) and 50 control subjects (25 corneal epithelium and 25 tears). Transcripts of RAGE, HMGB1, and S100 family ligands were quantified by RT-qPCR, identifying a significantly higher expression of RAGE and HMGB1 in the healthy group than in the KC group (
and 0.04, respectively). Western Blot showed a significantly higher fl-RAGE expression in KC corneal epithelium than control (
) and lower s-RAGE expression in KC tears than control (
). Conclusions. Linked with the inflammatory process occurring in KC pathophysiology, we propose for the first time that the RAGE expression (total and truncated forms of receptor and ligands) in KC corneal tissues and tear samples provides viable biomarkers.
The lung injury is often secondary to severe trauma. In the model of crush syndrome, there may be secondary lung injury. We hypothesize that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), released from muscle tissue, mediates the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) via HMGB1/Receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. The study aimed to investigate how HMGB1 mediated the apoptosis of AEC in the rat model.
Seventy-five SD male rats were randomly divided into five groups: CS, CS + vehicle, CS + Ethyl pyruvate (EP), CS + FPS-ZM1 group, and CS + SP600125 groups. When the rats CS model were completed after 24 h, the rats were sacrificed. We collected the serum and the whole lung tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum samples. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to quantify the protein and mRNA. Lastly, apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL. We used SPSS 25.0 for statistical analyses.
Nine rats died during the experiments. Dead rats were excluded from further analysis. Compared to the CS group, levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokines in serum were downregulated in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups. Western blot and RT-qPCR analysis revealed a significant downregulation of HMGB1, RAGE, and phosphorylated-JNK in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups, compared with the CS groups, excluding total-JNK mRNA. Apoptosis of AEC was used TUNEL to assess. We found the TUNEL-positive cells were downregulated in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups.
The remote lung injury begins early after crush injuries. The HMGB1/RAGE/JNK signaling axis is an attractive target to abrogate the apoptosis of AEC after crush injuries.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be present in food or be endogenously produced in biological systems. Their formation has been associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The implication of AGEs in neurodegeneration is related to their ability to bind to AGE-specific receptors and the ability of their precursors to induce the so-called “dicarbonyl stress”, resulting in cross-linking and protein damage. However, the mode of action underlying their role in neurodegeneration remains unclear. While some research has been carried out in observational clinical studies, further in vitro studies may help elucidate these underlying modes of action. This review presents and discusses in vitro methodologies used in research on the potential role of AGEs in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The overview reveals the main concepts linking AGEs to neurodegeneration, the current findings, and the available and advisable in vitro models to study their role. Moreover, the major questions regarding the role of AGEs in neurodegenerative diseases and the challenges and discrepancies in the research field are discussed.
As of late, evidence has been emerging that the Maillard reaction (MR, also referred to as glycation) affects the structure and function of food proteins. MR induces the conformational and chemical modification of food proteins, not only on the level of IgG/IgE recognition, but also by increasing the interaction and recognition of these modified proteins by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This affects their biological properties, including digestibility, bioavailability, immunogenicity, and ultimately their allergenicity. APCs possess various receptors that recognize glycation structures, which include receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), scavenger receptors (SRs), galectin-3 and CD36. Through these receptors, glycation structures may influence the recognition, uptake and antigen-processing of food allergens by dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes. This may lead to enhanced cytokine production and maturation of DCs, and may also induce adaptive immune responses to the antigens/allergens as a result of antigen uptake, processing and presentation to T cells. Here, we aim to review the current literature on the immunogenicity of AGEs originating from food (exogenous or dietary AGEs) in relation to AGEs that are formed within the body (endogenous AGEs), their interactions with receptors present on immune cells, and their effects on the activation of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Finally, we review the clinical relevance of AGEs in food allergies.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that plays an important role in the repair and regeneration of tissue injury. It also acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine through the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), to elicit the neuroinflammatory response. HMGB1 may aggravate several cellular responses which may lead to pathological inflammation and cellular death. Thus, there have been a considerable amount of research into the pathological role of HMGB1 in diseases. However, whether the mechanism of action of HMGB1 is similar in all neurodegenerative disease pathology remains to be determined.
Therefore, this systematic review aimed to critically evaluate and elucidate the role of HMGB1 in the pathology of neurodegeneration based on the available literature.
A comprehensive literature search was performed on four databases; EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL Plus.
A total of 85 articles were selected for critical appraisal, after subjecting to the inclusion and exclusion criteria in this study. The selected articles revealed that HMGB1 levels were found elevated in most neurodegeneration except in Huntington’s disease and Spinocerebellar ataxia, where the levels were found decreased. This review also showcased that HMGB1 may act on distinctive pathways to elicit its pathological response leading to the various neurodegeneration processes/diseases.
While there have been promising findings in HMGB1 intervention research, further studies may still be required before any HMGB1 intervention may be recommended as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.
Background: The death of pancreatic islet β-cells (β-cells), which are the insulin-producing cells, promote the pathology in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (T1DM and T2DM), and they are protected by autophagy which is one of the mechanisms of cell survival. Recently, that some advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), such as methylglyoxial-derived AGEs and Nε-carboxymethyllysine, induced the death of β-cells were revealed. In contrast, we had reported AGEs derived from glyceraldehyde (GA, the metabolism intermediate of glucose and fructose) are considered to be toxic AGEs (TAGE) due to their cytotoxicity and role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. More, serum levels of TAGE are elevated in patients with T1 and T2DM, where they exert cytotoxicity. Aim: We researched the cytotoxicity of intracellular and extracellular TAGE in β-cells and the possibility that intracellular TAGE were associated with autophagy. Methods: 1.4E7 cells (a human β-cell line) were treated with GA, and analyzed viability, quantity of TAGE, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I, LC3-II, and p62. We also examined the viability of 1.4E7 cells treated with TAGE-modified bovine serum albumin, a model of TAGE in the blood. Results: Intracellular TAGE induced death of 1.4E7 cells, decrease of LC3-I, LC3-II, and p62. Extracellular TAGE didn’t show cytotoxicity in the physiological concentration. Conclusion: Intracellular TAGE induced death of β-cells more strongly than extracellular TAGE, and may suppress autophagy via reduction of LC3-I, LC3-II, and p62 to inhibit the degradation of them.
Increased collagen-derived advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are consistently related to painful diseases, including osteoarthritis, diabetic neuropathy, and neurodegenerative disorders. We have recently developed a model combining a two-dimensional glycated extracellular matrix (ECM-GC) and primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) that mimicked a pro-nociceptive microenvironment. However, culturing primary cells is still a challenge for large-scale screening studies. Here, we characterized a new model using ECM-GC as a stimulus for human sensory-like neurons differentiated from SH-SY5Y cell lines to screen for analgesic compounds. First, we confirmed that the differentiation process induces the expression of neuron markers (MAP2, RBFOX3 (NeuN), and TUBB3 (β-III tubulin), as well as sensory neuron markers critical for pain sensation (TRPV1, SCN9A (Nav1.7), SCN10A (Nav1.8), and SCN11A (Nav1.9). Next, we showed that ECM-GC increased c-Fos expression in human sensory-like neurons, which is suggestive of neuronal activation. In addition, ECM-GC upregulated the expression of critical genes involved in pain, including SCN9A and TACR1. Of interest, ECM-GC induced substance P release, a neuropeptide widely involved in neuroinflammation and pain. Finally, morphine, the prototype opiate, decreased ECM-GC-induced substance P release. Together, our results suggest that we established a functional model that can be useful as a platform for screening candidates for the management of painful conditions.
For various legal and forensic scenarios, establishing an individual’s age, both living and dead, plays a crucial role. Various morphological, radiographic, and molecular methods can be used for age estimation. In children and adolescents, age estimation is based on the established developmental stages. However, in adults, where the development ceases into maturation, the degenerative changes play a role in determining the age.
Main body of the abstract
In the natural aging process, several molecular changes occur most commonly in the long-living proteins and hard tissues like the teeth and bone. These molecular changes gradually lead to alterations in several organs and organ systems, which can be quantified and correlated with age, including aspartic acid racemization, collagen crosslinks, advanced glycation-end products, and mitochondrial DNA mutations.
Among the above methods, the racemization of aspartic acid can be considered as the most precise method. The main advantage of using aspartic acid racemization is that the sample can be collected from tissues (teeth) protected from various environmental and nutritional factors. If all the confounding factors are stable, the utilization of advanced glycation-end products can also be considered valuable. Environmental factors like lead accumulations may also help determine the age. However, further studies need to be conducted, focusing on providing a more standardized method. This review provides a concise summary of the biochemical techniques that can be used for estimation of age.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the anti-aging properties and safety of serum containing gold nanoparticles (AuNP) using Sidaguri extract (Sida rhombifolia) through their anti-glycation effect.
Methods: The anti-aging effect of serum was performed in vitro by measuring advance glycation end products (AGEs) formed during incubation using a Microplate reader, and safety of serum was performed using hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) method using White Leghorn egg.
Results: The study showed that serum formulation had an anti-glycation effect with inhibition percentages are 68.20±6.86% and 74.83%±19.91% for a serum containing 10% and 20% gold nanoparticles and little to no irritation potency for both serum formulations with RI value 0.0 and 0.0, respectively.
Conclusion: Due to both their anti-glycation effect and irritation behavior, serum formulation containing gold nanoparticle synthesized using Sidaguri extracts could be utilized as anti-aging cosmetics in the future.