stimulating factor
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2022 ◽  
Jose Lorenzo Romero-Trevejo ◽  
Lourdes Fernandez-Romero ◽  
Josue Delgado ◽  
Erika Muñoz-Garcia ◽  
Andres Sanchez-Perez ◽  

Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) detection in asymptomatic patients still remains controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of ophthalmologic findings as predictors of the presence of CAD when added to cardiovascular classic risk factors (CRF) in patients with acute coronary cardiopathy suspicion. Methods: After clinical stabilization, 96 patients with acute coronary cardiopathy suspicion were selected and divided in two groups: 69 patients with coronary lesions and 27 patients without coronary lesions. Their 192 eyes were subjected to a complete routine ophthalmologic examination. Samples of tear fluid were also collected to be used in the detection of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Logistic regression models, receiver operating characteristic curves and their area under the curve (AUC) were analysed. Results: Suggestive predictors were choroidal thickness (CT) (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) and tear granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). We obtained an AUC of 0.9646 (95% CI: 0.928-0.999) when CT and tear G-CSF were added as independent variables to the logistic regression model with cardiovascular CRF: sex, age, diabetes, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habit and obesity. This AUC was significantly higher (p=0.003) than the prediction derived from the same logistic regression model without CT and tear G-CSF (AUC=0.828, 95% CI: 0.729-0.927). Conclusions: CT and tear G-CSF improved the predictive model for CAD when added to cardiovascular CRF in our sample of symptomatic patients. Subsequent studies are needed for validation of these findings in asymptomatic patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Inhye Park ◽  
Michael E. Goddard ◽  
Jennifer E. Cole ◽  
Natacha Zanin ◽  
Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen ◽  

AbstractMacrophages are integral to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but the contribution of distinct macrophage subsets to disease remains poorly defined. Using single cell technologies and conditional ablation via a LysMCre+Clec4a2flox/DTR mouse strain, we demonstrate that the expression of the C-type lectin receptor CLEC4A2 is a distinguishing feature of vascular resident macrophages endowed with athero-protective properties. Through genetic deletion and competitive bone marrow chimera experiments, we identify CLEC4A2 as an intrinsic regulator of macrophage tissue adaptation by promoting a bias in monocyte-to-macrophage in situ differentiation towards colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) in vascular health and disease. During atherogenesis, CLEC4A2 deficiency results in loss of resident vascular macrophages and their homeostatic properties causing dysfunctional cholesterol metabolism and enhanced toll-like receptor triggering, exacerbating disease. Our study demonstrates that CLEC4A2 licenses monocytes to join the vascular resident macrophage pool, and that CLEC4A2-mediated macrophage homeostasis is critical to combat cardiovascular disease.

2022 ◽  
Cunliang Wang ◽  
Shouhui Zhu ◽  
Chuanwang Miao ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Jiazhen Chen ◽  

Abstract Objective To investigate pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) safety and efficacy in preventing hematological toxicity during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods We retrospectively assessed 80 SCLC patients treated with CCRT from January 2013 to December 2018 who received PEG-rhG-CSF within 48 hours after the end of chemotherapy, defined as prophylactic use, as the experimental group. An additional 80 patients who were not treated with PEG-rhG-CSF were matched 1:1 by the propensity score matching method and served as the control group. The main observations were differences in hematological toxicity, neutrophil changes, febrile neutropenia (FN) incidence and adverse reactions. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed with regular assessment and follow-up. Results The leukocyte, neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet counts and hemoglobin level decreased after CCRT, but the experimental group had slightly higher leukocyte and neutrophil counts than the control group (P<0.05). The incidences of grade III-IV leukopenia (18.75% vs. 61.25%) and neutropenia (23.75% vs. 67.5%) in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The absolute neutrophil count was 4.17±0.79 on day 1 and peaked (6.81±2.37) on day 10 in the experimental group; the value in the control group was 2.81±0.86 on day 1. It decreased significantly and reached the minimum (0.91±0.53) on day 10 (P<0.05). The experimental group had a lower FN incidence than the control group (P<0.05). There was also no significant acute esophagitis or pulmonary toxicity. The treatment had no significant effect on PFS (11.4 vs. 8.7, P=0.958) or OS (23.9 vs. 17.3, P=0.325) over an 18.6-month median follow-up time. Conclusion PEG-rhG-CSF has good efficacy and safety in preventing hematological toxicity in SCLC patients during CCRT and has no significant effects on PFS or OS.

2022 ◽  
JinTao Guan ◽  
Anran Xi ◽  
DU Jin ◽  
XiaoYue Mou ◽  
Zhenghao Xu

Objective: We performed a meta analysis in order to determine safety of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM CSF) antibodies on COVID 19. Methods: We searched from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, biorxiv and medrxiv databases beginning in the COVID-19 outbreak on December 1, 2019 until August 29, 2021. The primary outcomes included death, the incidence of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), ventilation requirement, and secondary infection. Results: 6 eligible literature involving 1501 COVID 19 patients were recruited, and they were divided into experimental group (n = 736) and control group (n = 765). Using a random effect model, we found that the GM CSF antibodies treatment was associated with a 3.8-26.9% decline of the risk of mortality[odd ratio (OR) = 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11, -0.01, p =0.02], a 5.3-28.7% reduction of incidence of IMV [OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.95, p =0.03], and a 23.3-50.0% enhancement of ventilation improvement [OR = 11.70, 95% CI: 1.99, 68.68, p=0.006]. There were no statistically significant differences in the association between two groups in second infection. Conclusion: Severe COVID 19 patients may benefit from GM CSF antibodies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ramon Diez-Feijóo ◽  
Juan Jose Rodríguez-Sevilla ◽  
Concepcion Fernández-Rodríguez ◽  
Solange Flores ◽  
Carmen Raya ◽  

Late onset neutropenia (LON) related to rituximab or rituximab plus chemotherapy is defined as an unexplained absolute neutrophil count of ≤1.5 × 109/L starting at least four weeks after the last rituximab administration. LON is infrequent and its pathophysiology remains unknown. There are no guidelines or consensus strategies for the optimal management of patients developing LON. The majority of the patients recover promptly with no specific treatment and only some cases need to be managed with granulocytic colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), usually with a rapid response. Here, we describe a 69-year-old patient with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia who presented a septic event in the context of severe LON after rituximab plus bendamustine. The diagnosed of agranulocytosis was established by bone marrow examination. Interestingly, anti-neutrophil antibodies bound to the patient’s granulocytes were found suggesting an autoimmune mechanism. The patient did not respond to G-CSF but achieved a rapid response after high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins with full white blood cell recovery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ryunosuke Nakagawa ◽  
Hiroaki Iwamoto ◽  
Tomoyuki Makino ◽  
Suguru Kadomoto ◽  
Hiroshi Yaegashi ◽  

It has been reported that chemotherapy drugs and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administered on the same day can aggravate neutropenia. In the present study, we investigated the safety of pegfilgrastim during bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) therapy. This single-center retrospective study, including 137 cycles of BEP therapy for germ cell tumors between January 2008 and April 2021, investigated safety. Short-acting G-CSF was used for 84 cycles and pegfilgrastim was used for 53 cycles. In the pegfilgrastim group, neutrophil count at nadir was significantly higher than in the G-CSF group (median 1,650/μl and 680/μl, respectively). The incidence of grade 3–4 neutropenia was significantly higher and the duration longer in the G-CSF group. Also, there was no significant difference in the incidence of febrile neutropenia. In conclusion, concomitant use of pegfilgrastim during BEP therapy did not increase neutropenia and was effective in terms of safety.

2022 ◽  
Sarah Rose Anderson ◽  
Jacqueline M Roberts ◽  
Nate Ghena ◽  
Emmalyn Irvin ◽  
Joon Schwakopf ◽  

Microglia serve critical remodeling roles that shape the developing nervous system, responding to the changing neural environment with phagocytosis or soluble factor secretion. Recent single-cell sequencing (scRNAseq) studies have revealed the context-dependent diversity in microglial properties and gene expression, but the cues promoting this diversity are not well defined. Here, we ask how interactions with apoptotic neurons shape microglial state, including lysosomal and lipid metabolism gene expression and independence from Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) for survival. Using early postnatal mouse retina, a CNS region undergoing significant developmental remodeling, we performed scRNAseq on microglia from mice that are wild-type, lack neuronal apoptosis (Bax KO), or are treated with CSF1R inhibitor (PLX3397). We find that interactions with apoptotic neurons drives multiple microglial remodeling states, subsets of which are resistant to CSF1R inhibition. We find that TAM receptor Mer and complement receptor 3 are required for clearance of apoptotic neurons, but that Mer does not drive expression of remodeling genes. We show TAM receptor Axl is negligible for phagocytosis or remodeling gene expression but is consequential for microglial survival in the absence of CSF1R signaling. Thus, interactions with apoptotic neurons shift microglia towards distinct remodeling states and through Axl, alters microglial dependence on survival pathway, CSF1R.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Seul Hye Ryu ◽  
Hyun Soo Shin ◽  
Hye Hyeon Eum ◽  
Ji Soo Park ◽  
Wanho Choi ◽  

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen-presenting cells that prime naive T cells and initiate adaptive immunity. Although the genetic deficiency and transgenic overexpression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling were reported to influence the homeostasis of DCs, the in vivo development of DC subsets following injection of GM-CSF has not been analyzed in detail. Among the treatment of mice with different hematopoietic cytokines, only GM-CSF generates a distinct subset of XCR1-33D1- DCs which make up the majority of DCs in the spleen after three daily injections. These GM-CSF-induced DCs (GMiDCs) are distinguished from classical DCs (cDCs) in the spleen by their expression of CD115 and CD301b and by their superior ability to present blood-borne antigen and thus to stimulate CD4+ T cells. Unlike cDCs in the spleen, GMiDCs are exceptionally effective to polarize and expand T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and able to induce allergic sensitization in response to blood-borne antigen. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis and adoptive cell transfer assay reveal the sequential differentiation of classical monocytes into pre-GMiDCs and GMiDCs. Interestingly, mixed bone marrow chimeric mice of Csf2rb+/+ and Csf2rb-/- demonstrate that the generation of GMiDCs necessitates the cis expression of GM-CSF receptor. Besides the spleen, GMiDCs are generated in the CCR7-independent resident DCs of the LNs and in some peripheral tissues with GM-CSF treatment. Also, small but significant numbers of GMiDCs are generated in the spleen and other tissues during chronic allergic inflammation. Collectively, our present study identifies a splenic subset of CD115hiCD301b+ GMiDCs that possess a strong capacity to promote Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization against blood-borne antigen.

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