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2022 ◽  
Kim Van der Eecken ◽  
Malaïka Van der Linden ◽  
Lennart Raman ◽  
David Creytens ◽  
Franceska Dedeurwaerdere ◽  

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tamara Babic ◽  
Sandra Dragicevic ◽  
Marko Miladinov ◽  
Zoran Krivokapic ◽  
Aleksandra Nikolic

Abstract Background Transcripts with alternative 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) result from the activity of alternative promoters and they can determine gene expression by influencing its stability and translational efficiency, thus executing complex regulation of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Transcriptional regulation of human SMAD4, a key tumor suppressor deregulated in most gastrointestinal cancers, entails four alternative promoters. These promoters and alternative transcripts they generate remain unexplored as contributors to the SMAD4 deregulation in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative abundance of the transcript SMAD4–201 in colorectal cell lines and tissues in order to establish if its fluctuations may be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Relative abundance of SMAD4–201 in total SMAD4 mRNA was analyzed using quantitative PCR in a set of permanent human colon cell lines and tumor and corresponding healthy tissue samples from patients with CRC. Results The relative abundance of SMAD4–201 in analyzed cell lines varied between 16 and 47%. A similar relative abundance of SMAD4–201 transcript was found in the majority of analyzed human tumor tissue samples, and it was averagely 20% lower in non-malignant in comparison to malignant tissue samples (p = 0.001). Transcript SMAD4–202 was not detectable in any of the analyzed samples, so the observed fluctuations in the composition of SMAD4 transcripts can be attributed to transcripts other than SMAD4–201 and SMAD4–202. Conclusion The expression profile of SMAD4–201 in human tumor and non-tumor tissue samples may indicate the translational potential of this molecule in CRC, but further research is needed to clarify its usability as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Ye Zheng ◽  
Mingzhu Xu ◽  
Dong Zeng ◽  
Haitao Tong ◽  
Yuhan Shi ◽  

Abstract Aims Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is the major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in East Asia. Here we aimed to further investigate the abundance of viral antigen and DNA within HBV-related HCC and surrounding tissues at histological level. Method In addition to routine histopathology, in situ hybridization (ISH) of HBV DNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of HBsAg were performed in tissues from 131 HBsAg-positive HCC patients undergoing liver resection. Serum α-fetoprotein together with basic biochemical and immunological parameter was also measured. Results Overall, the ISH of HBV DNA and IHC of HBsAg showed 31.3% and 92.9% positive rate respectively (p < 0.0001). The level of correlation between these two markers was much more significant in tumor (p < 0.0001) than in tumor-surrounding tissue (p = 0.01). HBsAg exhibited a much higher positive rate in tumor-adjacent tissue than in tumor tissue (86.6% versus 29.9%, p < 0.0001) with significantly different staining pattern. By contrast, the positive rate of HBV DNA ISH was comparable in tumor and surrounding tissue (17.6% versus 22.9%, p = 0.36). Yet the HBV DNA signal in tumor tissue showed predominant nuclear localization (87.0%) whereas staining pattern in adjacent tissue was mixed (43.3% nuclear localization, p = 0.0015). Finally, no significant association between intra-tumor HBV DNA/HBsAg positivity and major histological markers (microvascular invasion, tumor differentiation, etc.) or recurrence after surgery was observed. Conclusions These data confirmed the largely integrated state of HBV DNA, weaker expression and altered localization of surface antigen in tumor compared with surrounding tissue. The strikingly different prevalence and localization of HBsAg and HBV DNA reflected the complex and heterogeneous mechanisms leading to HBV-induced tumorigenesis.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 427
Nadja Meumann ◽  
Christian Schmithals ◽  
Leroy Elenschneider ◽  
Tanja Hansen ◽  
Asha Balakrishnan ◽  

Although therapeutic options are gradually improving, the overall prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still poor. Gene therapy-based strategies are developed to complement the therapeutic armamentarium, both in early and late-stage disease. For efficient delivery of transgenes with antitumor activity, vectors demonstrating preferred tumor tropism are required. Here, we report on the natural tropism of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2 vectors for HCC. When applied intravenously in transgenic HCC mouse models, similar amounts of vectors were detected in the liver and liver tumor tissue. In contrast, transduction efficiency, as indicated by the level of transgene product, was moderate in the liver but was elevated up to 19-fold in mouse tumor tissue. Preferred transduction of HCC compared to hepatocytes was confirmed in precision-cut liver slices from human patient samples. Our mechanistic studies revealed that this preference is due to the improved intracellular processing of AAV2 vectors in HCC, resulting, for example, in nearly 4-fold more AAV vector episomes that serve as templates for gene transcription. Given this background, AAV2 vectors ought to be considered to strengthen current—or develop novel—strategies for treating HCC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Brijesh Kumar ◽  
Adedeji K. Adebayo ◽  
Mayuri Prasad ◽  
Maegan L. Capitano ◽  
Ruizhong Wang ◽  

Tumor tissue collection and processing under physioxia allow highly relevant detection of signaling networks and drug sensitivity.

Pathobiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Bruna Minniti Mançano ◽  
Mariana Bisarro dos Reis ◽  
Daniel Antunes Moreno ◽  
Flávia Escremim de Paula ◽  
Carlos Roberto de Almeida Junior ◽  

Herein, we present a rare case of a nine-month-old boy diagnosed with infant-type hemispheric glioma (gliosarcoma subtype) at the left frontal lobe. Following subtotal resection, the patient started chemotherapy with the BABY POG protocol. We describe the clinical diagnosis, histological characteristics, radiological features, molecular aspects, and management of this tumor. A comprehensive molecular analysis on the tumor tissue showed a <i>TPR-NTRK1</i> gene fusion. The patient was treated with a TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, and exhibited a stable disease with residual lesion following 8 months of target therapy. The present study is the first report of an infantile gliosarcoma harboring <i>NTRK1</i> rearrangement treated with larotrectinib.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 403
Luiz F. S. Oliveira ◽  
Danilo Predes ◽  
Helena L. Borges ◽  
Jose G. Abreu

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks second in the number of cancer deaths worldwide, mainly due to late diagnoses, which restrict treatment in the potentially curable stages and decrease patient survival. The treatment of CRC involves surgery to remove the tumor tissue, in addition to radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy sessions. However, almost half of patients are resistant to these treatments, especially in metastatic cases, where the 5-year survival rate is only 12%. This factor may be related to the intratumoral heterogeneity, tumor microenvironment (TME), and the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which is impossible to resolve with the standard approaches currently available in clinical practice. CSCs are APC-deficient, and the search for alternative therapeutic agents such as small molecules from natural sources is a promising strategy, as these substances have several antitumor properties. Many of those interfere with the regulation of signaling pathways at the central core of CRC development, such as the Wnt/β-catenin, which plays a crucial role in the cell proliferation and stemness in the tumor. This review will discuss the use of naturally occurring small molecules inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in experimental CRC models over the past decade, highlighting the molecular targets in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms through which these molecules perform their antitumor activities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 852
Aneta L. Zygulska ◽  
Piotr Pierzchalski

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Less than half of cases are diagnosed when the cancer is locally advanced. CRC is a heterogenous disease associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. Diagnostic markers are used for risk stratification and early detection, which might prolong overall survival. Nowadays, the widespread use of semi-invasive endoscopic methods and feacal blood tests characterised by suboptimal accuracy of diagnostic results has led to the detection of cases at later stages. New molecular noninvasive tests based on the detection of CRC alterations seem to be more sensitive and specific then the current methods. Therefore, research aiming at identifying molecular markers, such as DNA, RNA and proteins, would improve survival rates and contribute to the development of personalized medicine. The identification of “ideal” diagnostic biomarkers, having high sensitivity and specificity, being safe, cheap and easy to measure, remains a challenge. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances in novel diagnostic biomarkers for tumor tissue, blood and stool samples in CRC patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Weiguo Xu ◽  
Jian Wang

Background: The oncological role of TMC5 in human cancers has only been revealed partially. We performed integrated bioinformatics analysis to provide a thorough and detailed insight of associations between TMC5 and tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and prognosis.Methods: With reference to the accessible online databases, the TMC5 expressions in tumor tissues and corresponding normal tissues, different pathological stages, and various cancer cells were analyzed, while the protein levels of TMC5 in different cancers were also inspected. Meanwhile, the prognostic value of TMC5 expression in multiple cancers as well as in advanced-stage patients was investigated. Furthermore, the mutational data of TMC5 and its correlation with cancer prognosis were assessed. Moreover, the association between the TMC5 level and immune cell infiltration was evaluated. Next, TMC5-related pathway alterations and drug responses were summarized. Finally, the TMC5 based protein network was generated, and relevant enrichment was performed.Results: In our study, the expression level of TMC5 was significantly higher in the tumor tissue than that of the normal tissues in most cancer types. Fluctuations of TMC5 levels were also observed among different pathological stages. In the meantime, the protein level elevated in the tumor tissue in the cancers enrolled. Moreover, the expression of TMC5 was not only prognostic for overall survival (OS) or recurrence free survival (RFS) in various types of cancers but also correlated to OS in patients with more advanced cancers. Additionally, the mutational status of TMC5 is also associated with prognosis in cancer patients. It is worth noting that the TMC5 level was closely related to immune cell infiltrations, especially in ESCA, TGCT, and USC. The TMC5 expression was also identified as an activator for pathways including PI3K/AKT, RAS/MAPK, and TSC/mTOR, proved to be associated with multiple drug responses and assessed to be interactive with the TMEM family.Conclusion: TMC5 might function as a potential marker for cancer survival and immune responses.

2022 ◽  
pp. 41-46
N. B. Zakharova ◽  
A. N. Ponukalin ◽  
M. L. Chekhonatskaya ◽  
A. Y. Korolev ◽  
Y. M. Komyagina

The development of malignant tissue transformation is accompanied by the accumulation of immune system cells or tumor microenvironment cells (MCO) in it. Three variants of immune cell accumulation were identified: the ‘immune desert’ phenotype, ‘hot’ tumors, with a cytolytic T-cell response. The review presents immunotherapeutic strategies of exposure in order to enhance the ability of McO to initiate immune mechanisms capable of blocking the development of tumor tissue. The analysis of the presented data on the importance of immuno-oncological biomarkers as laboratory indicators of the therapeutic effectiveness of drug therapy aimed at restoring key immune defense pathways in oncourological diseases was carried out. The results of the study of the effectiveness of immuno-oncological biomarkers for assessing the state of antitumor immunity in malignant neoplasms of the bladder, kidneys, prostate gland are summarized.

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