Evolution of urban black and odorous water: The characteristics of microbial community and driving-factors

2022 ◽  
Vol 112 ◽  
pp. 94-105
Dan Zhang ◽  
Huilan Yang ◽  
Shuhuan Lan ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  
Xudong Li ◽  
PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254065
Wenjing Li ◽  
Lamei Jiang ◽  
Yang Zhang ◽  
Dexiong Teng ◽  
Hengfang Wang ◽  

Environmental properties are important factors in structuring soil microbial communities. The primary driving factors vary in different ecosystems. In the present work, we analyzed the microbial communities of rhizosphere and bulk soils associated with the halophyte Alhagi sparsifolia across three salt/water gradients in the desert area around Ebinur Lake Basin, China, using high-throughput sequencing technology. We found that there were significant differences in soil water content (SWC), soil salinity (SAL), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents between the three water/salt gradients. In the L (low water and salt) plot, Actinobacteria was the most abundant bacterial phylum while Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria was negatively correlated with soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), TP, and available phosphorus (AP). The abundance of Bacteroidetes was significantly positively correlated with soil SOC, SWC, SAL, pH, TN, and TP (P < 0.05). The abundance of fungal phylum Chytridiomycota was significantly positively correlated with pH (P < 0.01), SWC, AP, and sulfate ion (P < 0.05). SOC and nitrate nitrogen were the main factors impacting the bacterial community, while ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) and TP were the main driving forces for the fungal community. Soil nutrients were the main contributors to the dissimilarities in the bacterial and fungal communities, explaining 48.06% and 44.45% of the variation. SWC, SAL, and pH explained only a small percentage of the microbial community dissimilarity. In conclusion, soil microbial community structure was affected by SWC, SAL, pH, and soil nutrients, with soil nutrients as the main driving factors. Nitrogen has a differential effect on the different microbial communities: bacterial communities of Alhagi sparsifolia were mainly affected by nitrate nitrogen, while fungal communities were mainly driven by ammonium nitrogen.

mSystems ◽  
2021 ◽  
Zhi-Feng Zhang ◽  
Jie Pan ◽  
Yue-Ping Pan ◽  
Meng Li

As a key microbial community component with important ecological roles, archaea merit the attention of biologists and ecologists. The mechanisms controlling microbial community diversity, composition, and biogeography are central to microbial ecology but poorly understood.

2018 ◽  
Vol 8 (9) ◽  
pp. 1419 ◽  
Tong Jia ◽  
Tingyan Guo ◽  
Miaowen Cao ◽  
Baofeng Chai

Copper mining has resulted in severe damage to the ecological environment of mining areas. This study investigated heavy metal distribution in plants and compared the driving factors between aboveground and subsurface microorganisms, as well as the diversity in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial community response to heavy metal transfer factors in a copper tailings dam. We analyzed phyllosphere and soil microbial community using high-throughput sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, respectively. Although we detected chromium in aboveground and subsurface of Bothriochloa ischaemum specimens, no chromium was detected in soil. Total nitrogen was negatively correlated to the carbon and nitrogen ratios of plants and soil, respectively, while the total sulfur was negatively correlated to cadmium in roots. On the contrary, soil sulfur was positively correlated to cadmium in soil. Moreover, soil sulphur was the main influencing factor on the soil bacterial community, while ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen, and zinc were the driving factors of fungi diversity in non-rhizosphere soil. Fungi diversity in the rhizosphere was significantly correlated to phosphatase, and fungi diversity in the non-rhizosphere was significantly correlated to sucrose enzymes. The transfer factor of lead was negatively correlated to rhizosphere fungi diversity, and the transfer factor of copper was significantly correlated to non-rhizosphere bacterial diversity. Results from this study may offer some scientific reference for the improvement of plant-microbe remediation efficiency. At the same time, this study could provide an ecological basis for further studies on soil ecosystem restoration and degradation mechanisms that are associated with copper tailings dams.

Li-Juan Chai ◽  
Wei Qian ◽  
Xiao-Zhong Zhong ◽  
Xiao-Juan Zhang ◽  
Zhen-Ming Lu ◽  

Mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Recent researches and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB’s characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice, however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Here, based on the variation regularity analysis of microbial community structure and metabolites of samples from cellars of different ages (∼30/100/300 years), we further investigated the effects of lactate and acetate (main microbial metabolites in fermented grains) on modulating pit mud microbiome. Esters (50.3%-64.5%) dominated the volatile compounds identified in pit mud, and contents of the four typical acids (lactate, hexanoate, acetate and butyrate) increased with cellar age. Bacteria (9.5-10.4 lg copies/g) and archaea (8.3-9.1 lg copies/g) mainly constituted pit mud microbiota, respectively dominated by Clostridia (39.7%-81.2%) and Methanomicrobia (32.8%-92.9%). An upward trend with cellar age characterized the relative and absolute abundance of the most predominant bacterial/archaeal genus, Caproiciproducens / Methanosarcina . Correlation analysis revealed significantly ( P < 0.05) positive relationships between the two genera and major metabolites. Anaerobic fermentation with acetate and lactate as carbon sources enhanced the enrichment of Clostridia, and furthermore, the relative abundance of Caproiciproducens (40.9%) significantly increased after 15-day fed-batch fermentation with lactate compared with the initial pit mud (0.22%). This work presents a directional evolutionary pattern of pit mud microbial consortia and provides an alternative way to accelerate the enrichment of functional microbes. Importance The solid-state anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar is the most typical feature of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Metabolites produced by microbes inhabiting pit mud are crucial to create the unique flavor of SFB. Accordingly, craftspeople have always highlighted the importance of pit mud microbiome and concluded by centuries of practice that the production rate of high-quality baijiu increases with cellar age. To deepen the understanding of pit mud microbiome, we determined the microbial community and metabolites of different-aged pit mud, inferred the main functional groups and explored the forces driving the microbial community evolution through metagenomic, metabolomic and multivariate statistical analyses. The results showed that the microbial consortia of pit mud presented a regular and directional evolutionary pattern under the impact of continuously batch-to-batch brewing activities. This work provides insight into the key roles of pit mud microbiome in SFB production and supports the production optimization of high-quality pit mud.

2020 ◽  
Vol 48 (2) ◽  
pp. 399-409
Baizhen Gao ◽  
Rushant Sabnis ◽  
Tommaso Costantini ◽  
Robert Jinkerson ◽  
Qing Sun

Microbial communities drive diverse processes that impact nearly everything on this planet, from global biogeochemical cycles to human health. Harnessing the power of these microorganisms could provide solutions to many of the challenges that face society. However, naturally occurring microbial communities are not optimized for anthropogenic use. An emerging area of research is focusing on engineering synthetic microbial communities to carry out predefined functions. Microbial community engineers are applying design principles like top-down and bottom-up approaches to create synthetic microbial communities having a myriad of real-life applications in health care, disease prevention, and environmental remediation. Multiple genetic engineering tools and delivery approaches can be used to ‘knock-in' new gene functions into microbial communities. A systematic study of the microbial interactions, community assembling principles, and engineering tools are necessary for us to understand the microbial community and to better utilize them. Continued analysis and effort are required to further the current and potential applications of synthetic microbial communities.

2020 ◽  
Vol 158 (3) ◽  
pp. S66
Venu Lagishetty ◽  
Nerea Arias ◽  
Tien Dong ◽  
Meg Hauer ◽  
William Katzka ◽  

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