Insights from Ifaluk: Food sharing among cooperative fishers

2004 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 568-569
Richard Sosis

The fish-sharing patterns on Ifaluk Atoll underscore several limitations of the explanations of food sharing offered by Gurven and suggest that non-foraging labor activities may provide insights into reciprocity and punishment relevant for understanding food-sharing patterns. I also argue that future food-sharing studies should focus on signaling rather than resource holding potential (RHP).

2019 ◽  
Vol 133 (4) ◽  
pp. 474-487 ◽  
Eloísa M. Guerreiro Martins ◽  
Antonio C. de A. Moura ◽  
Christa Finkenwirth ◽  
Michael Griesser ◽  
Judith M. Burkart

2016 ◽  
Vol 37 (4) ◽  
pp. 250-259 ◽  
Cara A. Palmer ◽  
Meagan A. Ramsey ◽  
Jennifer N. Morey ◽  
Amy L. Gentzler

Abstract. Research suggests that sharing positive events with others is beneficial for well-being, yet little is known about how positive events are shared with others and who is most likely to share their positive events. The current study expanded on previous research by investigating how positive events are shared and individual differences in how people share these events. Participants (N = 251) reported on their likelihood to share positive events in three ways: capitalizing (sharing with close others), bragging (sharing with someone who may become jealous or upset), and mass-sharing (sharing with many people at once using communication technology) across a range of positive scenarios. Using cluster analysis, five meaningful profiles of sharing patterns emerged. These profiles were associated with gender, Big Five personality traits, narcissism, and empathy. Individuals who tended to brag when they shared their positive events were more likely to be men, reported less agreeableness, less conscientiousness, and less empathy, whereas those who tended to brag and mass-share reported the highest levels of narcissism. These results have important theoretical and practical implications for the growing body of research on sharing positive events.

2020 ◽  
Aleksandra Urman ◽  
Stefania Ionescu ◽  
David Garcia ◽  
Anikó Hannák

BACKGROUND Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists have been willing to share their results quickly to speed up the development of potential treatments and/or a vaccine. At the same time, traditional peer-review-based publication systems are not always able to process new research promptly. This has contributed to a surge in the number of medical preprints published since January 2020. In the absence of a vaccine, preventative measures such as social distancing are most helpful in slowing the spread of COVID-19. Their effectiveness can be undermined if the public does not comply with them. Hence, public discourse can have a direct effect on the progression of the pandemic. Research shows that social media discussions on COVID-19 are driven mainly by the findings from preprints, not peer-reviewed papers, highlighting the need to examine the ways medical preprints are shared and discussed online. OBJECTIVE We examine the patterns of medRxiv preprint sharing on Twitter to establish (1) whether the number of tweets linking to medRxiv increased with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) which medical preprints were mentioned on Twitter most often; (3) whether medRxiv sharing patterns on Twitter exhibit political partisanship; (4) whether the discourse surrounding medical preprints among Twitter users has changed throughout the pandemic. METHODS The analysis is based on tweets (n=557,405) containing links to medRxriv preprint repository that were posted between the creation of the repository in June 2019 and June 2020. The study relies on a combination of statistical techniques and text analysis methods. RESULTS Since January 2020, the number of tweets linking to medRxiv has increased drastically, peaking in April 2020 with a subsequent cool-down. Before the pandemic, preprints were shared predominantly by users we identify as medical professionals and scientists. After January 2020, other users, including politically-engaged ones, have started increasingly tweeting about medRxiv. Our findings indicate a political divide in sharing patterns of the top-10 most-tweeted preprints. All of them were shared more frequently by users who describe themselves as Republicans than by users who describe themselves as Democrats. Finally, we observe a change in the discourse around medRxiv preprints. Pre-pandemic tweets linking to them were predominantly using the word “preprint”. In February 2020 “preprint” was taken over by the word “study”. Our analysis suggests this change is at least partially driven by politically-engaged users. Widely shared medical preprints can have a direct effect on the public discourse around COVID-19, which in turn can affect the societies’ willingness to comply with preventative measures. This calls for an increased responsibility when dealing with medical preprints from all parties involved: scientists, preprint repositories, media, politicians, and social media companies. CONCLUSIONS Widely shared medical preprints can have a direct effect on the public discourse around COVID-19, which in turn can affect the societies’ willingness to comply with preventative measures. This calls for an increased responsibility when dealing with medical preprints from all parties involved: scientists, preprint repositories, media, politicians, and social media companies.

2020 ◽  
Vol 48 (6) ◽  
pp. 539-543
Michał Lipa ◽  
Przemysław Kosinski ◽  
Paweł Stanirowski ◽  
Mirosław Wielgos ◽  
Dorota Bomba-Opon

AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of placental anastomoses on the intrauterine growth of monochorionic (MC) twins.MethodsA prospective study was conducted in a group of 53 MC twins. Intrapartally umbilical cords were clamped to identify placental sides corresponding to each twin. The postnatal dye injection technique was administered to evaluate vascular anastomoses, their number and type and visualize placental territory sharing patterns. Data from digital analysis were correlated with obstetrical follow-up.ResultsVascular anastomoses were revealed in 88.7% of cases. Arteriovenous (AV) anastomoses occurred in 75.4% and arterioarterial (AA) in 71.1% while venovenous (VV) in 26.4%. In the subgroup of MC twins without placental anastomoses, significantly higher birthweight difference and discordance were revealed when compared to MC twins without anastomoses (382.0 vs. 22 g; P = 0.03 and 49.14% vs. 16.02%; P = 0.03). On the other hand, in subgroups of MC twins with at least one AA anastomosis, twins’ birthweights were similar (p = ns) despite significantly higher placental territory sharing discordance (30.44% vs. 15.81%; P = 0.31).ConclusionsVascular anastomoses have a major impact on the intrauterine growth of MC twins. In certain cases, they may cause specific complications; however, in general, they regulate intertwin blood exchange and may compensate unequal placental territory.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Cong Liu ◽  
Huiling Li ◽  
Qingtian Zeng ◽  
Ting Lu ◽  
Caihong Li

To support effective emergency disposal, organizations need to collaborate with each other to complete the emergency mission that cannot be handled by a single organization. In general, emergency disposal that involves multiple organizations is typically organized as a group of interactive processes, known as cross-organization emergency response processes (CERPs). The construction of CERPs is a time-consuming and error-prone task that requires practitioners to have extensive experience and business background. Process mining aims to construct process models by analyzing event logs. However, existing process mining techniques cannot be applied directly to discover CERPs since we have to consider the complexity of various collaborations among different organizations, e.g., message exchange and resource sharing patterns. To tackle this challenge, a CERP model mining method is proposed in this paper. More specifically, we first extend classical Petri nets with resource and message attributes, known as resource and message aware Petri nets (RMPNs). Then, intra-organization emergency response process (IERP) models that are represented as RMPNs are discovered from emergency drilling event logs. Next, collaboration patterns among emergency organizations are formally defined and discovered. Finally, CERP models are obtained by merging IERP models and collaboration patterns. Through comparative experimental evaluation using the fire emergency drilling event log, we illustrate that the proposed approach facilitates the discovery of high-quality CERP models than existing state-of-the-art approaches.

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