Food sharing patterns in three species of callitrichid monkeys (Callithrix jacchus, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Saguinus midas): Individual and species differences.

2019 ◽  
Vol 133 (4) ◽  
pp. 474-487 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eloísa M. Guerreiro Martins ◽  
Antonio C. de A. Moura ◽  
Christa Finkenwirth ◽  
Michael Griesser ◽  
Judith M. Burkart
2013 ◽  
Vol 280 (1768) ◽  
pp. 20131615 ◽  
Author(s):  
Adrian V. Jaeggi ◽  
Michael Gurven

Helping, i.e. behaviour increasing the fitness of others, can evolve when directed towards kin or reciprocating partners. These predictions have been tested in the context of food sharing both in human foragers and non-human primates. Here, we performed quantitative meta-analyses on 32 independent study populations to (i) test for overall effects of reciprocity on food sharing while controlling for alternative explanations, methodological biases, publication bias and phylogeny and (ii) compare the relative effects of reciprocity, kinship and tolerated scrounging, i.e. sharing owing to costs imposed by others. We found a significant overall weighted effect size for reciprocity of r = 0.20–0.48 for the most and least conservative measure, respectively. Effect sizes did not differ between humans and other primates, although there were species differences in in-kind reciprocity and trade. The relative effect of reciprocity in sharing was similar to those of kinship and tolerated scrounging. These results indicate a significant independent contribution of reciprocity to human and primate helping behaviour. Furthermore, similar effect sizes in humans and primates speak against cognitive constraints on reciprocity. This study is the first to use meta-analyses to quantify these effects on human helping and to directly compare humans and other primates.


1999 ◽  
Vol 70 (3) ◽  
pp. 146-153 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marcelina Souza de Oliveira ◽  
Fívia Araújo Lopes ◽  
Carmen Alonso ◽  
Maria Emília Yamamoto

2004 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 568-569
Author(s):  
Richard Sosis

The fish-sharing patterns on Ifaluk Atoll underscore several limitations of the explanations of food sharing offered by Gurven and suggest that non-foraging labor activities may provide insights into reciprocity and punishment relevant for understanding food-sharing patterns. I also argue that future food-sharing studies should focus on signaling rather than resource holding potential (RHP).


1998 ◽  
Vol 88 (2) ◽  
pp. 137-145 ◽  
Author(s):  
G. W. Tinney ◽  
P. E. Hatcher ◽  
P. G. Ayres ◽  
N. D. Paul ◽  
J. B. Whittaker

Pneumologie ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 67 (06) ◽  
Author(s):  
S Seehase ◽  
S Switalla ◽  
V Neuhaus ◽  
M Zöller ◽  
FJ Kaup ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Pneumologie ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 67 (06) ◽  
Author(s):  
C Curths ◽  
T Becker ◽  
FJ Kaup ◽  
C Schlumbohm ◽  
K Sewald ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2008 ◽  
Vol 97 (12) ◽  
pp. 5434-5445 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shiori Takahashi ◽  
Miki Katoh ◽  
Takashi Saitoh ◽  
Miki Nakajima ◽  
Tsuyoshi Yokoi

1991 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 118 ◽  
Author(s):  
DJ Munnich ◽  
PC Simpson ◽  
HI Nicol

A survey of natural and improved paddocks on 34 farms was conducted over winter within a 60 km radius of Goulburn on the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales. Seventeen of the properties which were found to have significant (greater than 10 per cent) proportions of potentially useful native grasses were resurveyed in the subsequent summer to identify specific Danthonia spp. The survey revealed that useful native yearlong green species such as Microlaena stipoides and Danthonia spp. were relatively abundant in natural paddocks surveyed over winter (16 per cent and 10 per cent respectively), Danthonia being represented by four common species. These natural paddocks, most of which contained Trifolium subterraneum and had some superphosphate input, carried 80 per cent as many stock as their improved counterparts in terms of average DSE/ha. Factors such as cultivation and the presence of naturalized or sown species influenced the abundance of these species, but species differences were apparent. Cultivation reduced the abundance of Danthonia spp. but did not affect the abundance of M. stipoides, which was thus more prevalent than Danthonia spp. in improved pastures. Microlaena stipoides was also more prevalent in uncleared than cleared paddocks. The frequency of Danthonia spp. was negatively associated with high percentage frequencies of annual grasses (principally Vulpia spp.), declining by approximately 2.5 per cent for each 10 per cent increase in annual grasses over winter. The proportion of M. stipoides observed in paddocks appeared to be more influenced by sown pasture species, with lowest percentages recorded where species such as Phalaris aquatica had been sown and highest percentages where no exotic species had been introduced. The abundance of M. stipoides was affected by pH, with percentage frequency increasing as pH declined (down to pH 4 (Cacl~)), indicating the possible acid tolerance of this species. Species' percentages recorded changed with season. For example, Danthonia percentages recorded were considerably greater over summer when flowering heads were obvious than those recorded in winter. This aspect highlights the importance of recording different species during specific seasons to increase the accuracy of frequency estimates.


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