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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Fayika Farhat Nova ◽  
Amanda Coupe ◽  
Elizabeth D. Mynatt ◽  
Shion Guha ◽  
Jessica A. Pater

A growing body of HCI research has sought to understand how online networks are utilized in the adoption and maintenance of disordered activities and behaviors associated with mental illness, including eating habits. However, individual-level influences over discrete online eating disorder (ED) communities are not yet well understood. This study reports results from a comprehensive network and content analysis (combining computational topic modeling and qualitative thematic analysis) of over 32,000 public tweets collected using popular ED-related hashtags during May 2020. Our findings indicate that this ED network in Twitter consists of multiple smaller ED communities where a majority of the nodes are exposed to unhealthy ED contents through retweeting certain influential central nodes. The emergence of novel linguistic indicators and trends (e.g., "#meanspo") also demonstrates the evolving nature of the ED network. This paper contextualizes ED influence in online communities through node-level participation and engagement, as well as relates emerging ED contents with established online behaviors, such as self-harassment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 864
Urszula Abramczyk ◽  
Maciej Nowaczyński ◽  
Adam Słomczyński ◽  
Piotr Wojnicz ◽  
Piotr Zatyka ◽  

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related major health consequences involve the lungs, a growing body of evidence indicates that COVID-19 is not inert to the pancreas either. This review presents a summary of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pancreatic dysfunction during the course of COVID-19, the comparison of the effects of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pancreatic function, and a summary of how drugs used in COVID-19 treatment may affect this organ. It appears that diabetes is not only a condition that predisposes a patient to suffer from more severe COVID-19, but it may also develop as a consequence of infection with this virus. Some SARS-CoV-2 inpatients experience acute pancreatitis due to direct infection of the tissue with the virus or due to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) accompanied by elevated levels of amylase and lipase. There are also reports that reveal a relationship between the development and treatment of pancreatic cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection. It has been postulated that evaluation of pancreatic function should be increased in post-COVID-19 patients, both adults and children.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 381
Xin Wang ◽  
Jihye Lee ◽  
Changqing Xie

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of the tumor population that play critical roles in tumorigenicity, metastasis, and relapse. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to numerous therapeutic strategies which include chemotherapy, radiation, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. In recent years, there is a growing body of literature that suggests a link between CSC maintenance and autophagy, a mechanism to recycle intracellular components during moments of environmental stress, especially since CSCs thrive in a tumor microenvironment that is plagued with hypoxia, acidosis, and lack of nutrients. Autophagy activation has been shown to aid in the upkeep of a stemness state along with bolstering resistance to cancer treatment. However, recent studies have also suggested that autophagy is a double-edged sword with anti-tumorigenic properties under certain circumstances. This review summarizes and integrates what has been published in the literature in terms of what role autophagy plays in stemness maintenance of CSCs and suggests that there is a more complex interplay between autophagy and apoptosis which involves multiple pathways of regulation. Future cancer therapy strategies are needed to eradicate this resistant subset of the cell population through autophagy regulation.

2022 ◽  
Jellie Sierksma

Children are prosocial from a young age onward but their prosocial actions are not necessarily egalitarian – especially with regard to others’ group membership. From around four years of age children tend to help and share more with in-group members compared to out-group members. However, a growing body of findings also suggest that sometimes children act more prosocially toward out-group members. How can we reconcile such seemingly contradicting behaviors? In this chapter, I describe how the salience of group stereotypes might shed light on these inconsistent findings. Specifically, different helping contexts can activate different group stereotypes. These different stereotypes could lead children to sometimes act more prosocially toward in-group peers, but sometimes show out-group bias in their helping or sharing behavior. For example, contexts that involve reciprocity could increase salience of a stereotype that out-groups are less trustworthy and thus children might be less inclined to share their resources with the out-group (i.e., in-group bias). Whereas an academic helping context might make a stereotype salient that entails out-groups are less competent and thus needing more help (i.e., out-group bias). Taking into account group stereotypes in children’s prosocial behavior will provide us with a deeper understanding of the underlying motivations that lead to selective prosociality in children. In the long run, such insights can contribute to combating discrimination and prejudice early in life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Carina Mauersberger ◽  
Julia Hinterdobler ◽  
Heribert Schunkert ◽  
Thorsten Kessler ◽  
Hendrik B. Sager

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide and leukocyte recruitment is a key element of this phenomenon, thus allowing immune cells to enter the arterial wall. There, in concert with accumulating lipids, the invading leukocytes trigger a plethora of inflammatory responses which promote the influx of additional leukocytes and lead to the continued growth of atherosclerotic plaques. The recruitment process follows a precise scheme of tethering, rolling, firm arrest, crawling and transmigration and involves multiple cellular and subcellular players. This review aims to provide a comprehensive up-to-date insight into the process of leukocyte recruitment relevant to atherosclerosis, each from the perspective of endothelial cells, monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes and platelets. In addition, therapeutic options targeting leukocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions—or potentially arising from the growing body of insights into its precise mechanisms—are highlighted.

Legal Studies ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
David Vitale

Abstract There is a growing body of scholarship examining the impact of courts’ social rights judgments, especially their distributive impact (ie the extent to which they deliver social rights-related goods and services to the poor and marginalised). Commentators have used this impact to evaluate the effectiveness of courts in realising citizens’ social rights. This paper contributes to the scholarship by adding a new ‘relational’ dimension to our understanding of such impact. It uses the literature on the concept of trust from philosophy, sociology and other disciplines to analyse the impact that social rights judgments have on the relationship between citizens and the political branches of government, and argues that social rights judgments can modify two elements of this relationship that determine the dynamics at play in it: citizens’ vulnerability to the political branches with respect to the relevant goods and services; and citizens’ uncertainty about the political branches’ exercise of control over the goods and services (which can promote the political branches’ trustworthiness). By broadening our understanding of these judgments’ impact, the paper offers a valuable lens through which to analyse social rights judgments and adds needed nuance to current debates about courts’ effectiveness in realising citizens’ social rights.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026765832110697
Jun Zhang ◽  
Yan Wu

Scalar implicatures involve inferring the use of a less informative term (e.g. some) to mean the negation of a more informative term (e.g. not all). A growing body of recent research on the derivation of scalar implicatures by adult second language (L2) learners shows that while they are successful in acquiring the knowledge of scalar implicatures, a property at the semantics–pragmatics interface, it remains controversial as to which mechanism, default or non-default, could account for L2 learners’ derivation of scalar implicatures. The present study used an online self-paced reading task to address this issue by examining the role of the speaker’s knowledge state in the interpretation of the existential quantifier some by Chinese-speaking learners of English in incremental sentence processing. Results showed that both L2 and native participants demonstrated comparable online sensitivity to the speaker’s knowledge state. Critically, when the scalar implicature was computed in situations where the speaker was more likely to know whether the statement with the stronger alternative was true, it gave rise to measurable reading latency, indicative of increased processing costs. We conclude by arguing that our findings are compatible with the context-driven models within the Gricean tradition.

Gila Amitay ◽  
Natti Ronel

Spiritual criminology (SC) is an umbrella term for various criminological theories, models and practices that share reference to the spiritual dimension of human existence. Informed by a growing body of research that applies spiritual approaches to various aspects of criminology, SC attempts to provide a common thread shared by most approaches to spirituality: a voluntary self-journey that begins with an elevated level of self-centeredness and is aimed at self-transformation. Based on an extensive review of the literature, this paper proposes three general principles for spiritual accompaniment of people who offended: mindful non-doing, being and acting; love and compassion; and compassionate inclusion. These principles can be applied by combining several practices: renouncing control over knowledge, process and outcomes; creating a moral atmosphere that includes forgiveness and nonjudgment; and self-modeling. SC is shown to contribute to the rehabilitation of people who offended and also to crime prevention.

Olimpia Mora-Janiszewska ◽  
Anna Faryniak-Zuzak ◽  
Dorota Darmochwał-Kolarz

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is considered a significant and increasing problem worldwide. The growing body of evidence points out that a hostile intrauterine environment in mothers with GDM via epigenetic mechanisms induces "diabetogenic" and "obesogenic" changes in an offspring's DNA. This sets in motion a vicious intergenerational cycle of metabolic diseases gradually deteriorating the health of the human population. One of the most important players in this process seems to be altered microbiota/microbiome. There is a chance that the identification of specific epigenetic marks may provide a key for future diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic solutions/measures in the field of person-alized medicine. Given the reversibility of most epigenetic changes, an opportunity arises to improve the long-term health of the human population/race. In this manuscript, we aim to summarize available data on epigenetic changes among women suffering from GDM and their progeny in association with changes in microbiome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
Nicole M. Wilkinson ◽  
Ho-Chung Chen ◽  
Melissa G. Lechner ◽  
Maureen A. Su

Strong epidemiological evidence now exists that sex is an important biologic variable in immunity. Recent studies, for example, have revealed that sex differences are associated with the severity of symptoms and mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite this evidence, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms underlying associations between sex differences and immune-mediated conditions. A growing body of experimental data has made significant inroads into understanding sex-influenced immune responses. As physicians seek to provide more targeted patient care, it is critical to understand how sex-defining factors (e.g., chromosomes, gonadal hormones) alter immune responses in health and disease. In this review, we highlight recent insights into sex differences in autoimmunity; virus infection, specifically severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; and cancer immunotherapy. A deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms will allow the development of a sex-based approach to disease screening and treatment. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 40 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

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