cluster analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 806 ◽  
pp. 150591
Po-Hsuan Yen ◽  
Chung-Shin Yuan ◽  
Chien-Hsing Wu ◽  
Ming-Jie Yeh ◽  
Yu-Lun Tseng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Islam Elgammal ◽  
Ghada Talat Alhothali ◽  
Annarita Sorrentino

Purpose Umrah is a religious ritual that takes place inside the Holy Mosque in Makkah. Umrah can be performed any time during the year; however, performing Umrah in the month of Ramadan is much rewarded. Although the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is hosting this event each year, studies that focus on exploring the Holy Mosque visitor segments are scarce. This study aims to explore and describe the marketing segments of Umrah performers relative to their Umrah experience inside the Holy Mosque of Makkah. Most specifically, this study aims to explore segments of Umrah performers based on their perception of servicescape, hedonic and convenience value and the visitors’ outcome behaviors [i.e. intention to revisit and positive word of mouth (PWOM)]. Design/methodology/approach Mixed-method techniques of data collection [i.e. self-administered questionnaires (n = 278) and short discussions (n = 10)] were used. Findings Cluster analysis is used for data analysis. The findings revealed four clusters of Umrah performers: real, occasional, rational and passionate performers. Research limitations/implications This study is a first attempt to target pilgrims based on their experience with the servicescape during the organized religious event; despite its exploratory nature, it reveals interesting insights that will be useful for managers and scholars. Although the study helps to enrich the existing knowledge on visitors’ experience and proposes some implications for practitioners, it does have some limitations. First, convenience sampling was used, and hence the findings cannot be generalized. Second, the limited period of observation did not allow the authors to provide a complete picture of the pilgrims’ behavior; for this reason, the study findings partially describe the phenomenon. Another limitation is related to the difficulty of approaching respondents from Asia or South East Asia although they constitute a significant percentage of the total Umrah performers every year; this is because of the language barrier as data was collected from only English and Arabic speakers. Hence, to overcome these limitations, it is suggested that future studies could be expanded to target Asian respondents and perhaps other nationalities; and could be undertaken in other religious contexts. Moreover, an interesting future study could be carried out to compare the same model during other religious events. Added to that, another growing area of research could be approached by researchers, such as the impact of pilgrims sharing their experiences on influencing E-PWOM. Practical implications The findings reveal several implications for policymakers and stakeholders. The segmentation of Umrah performers assists destination managers, policymakers and local firms involved in managing this mass event to identify effective marketing decision-makers, business strategies and policymakers to satisfy the needs of these visitors (Disegna et al., 2011). Particularly, the identification of the key characteristics of these visitors can help destination marketers to develop a marketing mix that suits the needs of each cluster (Smith et al., 2014). Despite that the performers’ main motivation is the religious purpose, marketing strategists can attract the attention of these visitors to visit other religious, cultural and heritage sites in the country. Social implications Encouraging the visit to other tourist spots in Saudi has several impacts on nourishing the economy and the community. Tourism in Saudi could encourage entrepreneurs to start new ventures to satisfy the need of visitors to the country. Small-medium enterprises could benefit from tourism as they could target market niches in which leader companies are not serving. For instance, hand-made souvenirs are one of these industries that could grow to satisfy the need of visitors. Originality/value The results contribute to the literature of event segmentation by identifying visitors’ profiles to rarely investigated destinations. The findings reveal several implications for policymakers and stakeholders.

2022 ◽  
Edda Humprecht ◽  
Laia Castro Herrero ◽  
Sina Blassnig ◽  
Michael Brüggemann ◽  
Sven Engesser

Abstract Media systems have changed significantly as a result of the development of information technologies. However, typologies of media systems that incorporate aspects of digitalization are rare. This study fills this gap by identifying, operationalizing, and measuring indicators of media systems in the digital age. We build on previous work, extend it with new indicators that reflect changing conditions (such as online news use), and include media freedom indicators. We include 30 countries in our study and use cluster analysis to identify three clusters of media systems. Two of these clusters correspond to the media system models described by Hallin and Mancini, namely the democratic-corporatist and the polarized-pluralist model. However, the liberal model as described by Hallin and Mancini has vanished; instead, we find empirical evidence of a new cluster that we call “hybrid”: it is positioned in between the poles of the media-supportive democratic-corporatist and the polarized-pluralist clusters.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Fiona Yu ◽  
Alana Cavadino ◽  
Lisa Mackay ◽  
Kim Ward ◽  
Anna King ◽  

PurposeLimited evidence exists regarding a group of nurses' physical activity patterns and association with resilience. Less is known about the physical activity health paradox in nurses (the positive health effects of leisure time physical activity vs the negative health effects of occupational physical activity). This study aimed to explore the profiles of intensive care nurses' physical activity behaviours and associations with resilience, following a developed study-specific job demands–recovery framework.Design/methodology/approachA cross-sectional study was conducted with intensive care unit (ICU) nurses to explore their physical activity profiles and associations with resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25 (CD-RISC 25) was used to assess resilience, and accelerometry was utilised to record participants' four-day activity (two workdays, two non-workdays). Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed to define groups of nurses by activity behaviours.FindingsParticipants (N = 93) were classified as low actives (n = 19), standers (n = 36), sitters (n = 31) and movers (n = 7). During two 12-h shifts, movers had the highest mean level of dynamic standing and the lowest mean level of sitting. During two non-workdays, movers had the highest mean level of walking as well as the lowest mean level of sitting and sleep time.Originality/valueThe uniqueness of this study was that it analysed ICU nurses' physical activity profiles and associations with resilience using identified clusters. However, the small number of participants limited this study's ability to determine significant relationships between resilience and the grouped physical activity profiles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 123-128
Tatiana Ďurčeková ◽  
Ján Mocák ◽  
Jozef Lehotay ◽  
Jozef Čižmárik

Anaesthetical activity of 113 morpholinoethyl-, piperidinoethyl-, piperidinopropyl- and azepanoethyl- ester derivatives of alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid was characterized by several chemometrical techniques. The surface anaesthetical activity, A, and the infiltration anaesthetical activity, B, were correlated to lipophilicity, (expressed by the logarithm of the HPLC retention factor, log k), the length of the side alkoxy chain (represented by the number n of carbon atoms), molar mass M as well as the ester type. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for predicting both types of the anaesthetic activity of the alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262473
Arlindo Ananias Pereira da Silva ◽  
Adriano Roberto Franquelino ◽  
Paulo Eduardo Teodoro ◽  
Rafael Montanari ◽  
Glaucia Amorim Faria ◽  

Several studies have reported the relationship of deforestation with increased incidence of infectious diseases, mainly due to the deregulation caused in these environments. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: a) is increased loss of vegetation related to dengue cases in the Brazilian Cerrado? b) how do different regions of the tropical savanna biome present distinct patterns for total dengue cases and vegetation loss? c) what is the projection of a future scenario of deforestation and an increased number of dengue cases in 2030? Thus, this study aimed to assess the relationship between loss of native vegetation in the Cerrado and dengue infection. In this paper, we quantify the entire deforested area and dengue infection cases from 2001 to 2019. For data analyses, we used Poisson generalized linear model, descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, non-parametric statistics, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict loss of vegetation and fever dengue cases for the next decade. Cluster analysis revealed the formation of four clusters among the states. Our results showed significant increases in loss of native vegetation in all states, with the exception of Piauí. As for dengue cases, there were increases in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Mato Grosso. Based on projections for 2030, Minas Gerais will register about 4,000 dengue cases per 100,000 inhabitants, São Paulo 750 dengue cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and Mato Grosso 500 dengue cases per 100,000 inhabitants. To reduce these projections, Brazil will need to control deforestation and implement public health, environmental and social policies, requiring a joint effort from all spheres of society.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 197
Anouk Boereboom ◽  
Philippe Mongondry ◽  
Luis K. de Aguiar ◽  
Beatriz Urbano ◽  
Zheng (Virgil) Jiang ◽  

Cultured meat, as a product of recent advancement in food technology, might become a viable alternative source of protein to traditional meat. As such, cultured meat production is disruptive as it has the potential to change the demand for traditional meats. Moreover, it has been claimed it can be more sustainable regarding the environment and that it is, perhaps, a solution to animal welfare issues. This study aimed at investigating associations between the consumer groups and demographic and psychographic factors as well as identifying distinct consumer groups based on their current willingness to engage with cultured meat. Four European countries were studied: the Netherlands (NL), the United Kingdom (UK), France (FR) and Spain (ES). A sample of 1291 responses from all four countries was collected between February 2017 and March 2019. Cluster analysis was used, resulting in three groups in the NL and UK, and two groups in FR and ES. The results suggest that Dutch consumers are the most willing to engage with cultured meat. Food neophobia and food technology neophobia seem to distinguish the groups the clearest. Moreover, there is some evidence that food cultural differences among the four countries seem to be also influencing consumers’ decision.

Julia Klimova ◽  
Dmitriy Alfer'ev

Innovations can help Russia to achieve economic growth. However, the R&D sector that produces these innovations totally depends on funding. The article introduces an analysis of the trends in R&D funding in Russia. Regional funds for financial support of research, technical, and innovative activities seem to be an effective tool that will eventually contribute to the economic growth. The research objective was to identify the relationship between R&D funding and economic growth. A review of scientific publications revealed some theoretical aspects behind the effect of R&D costs on other indicators of economic growth. A cluster analysis made it possible to identify some regions where the relationship between R&D expenditures and indicators of economic growth are most pronounced. The study can help regional authorities to plan local budgets and achieve economic growth for their regions.

Drug Safety ◽  
2022 ◽  
Corine Ekhart ◽  
Florence van Hunsel ◽  
Eugène van Puijenbroek ◽  
Rebecca Chandler ◽  
Eva-Lisa Meldau ◽  

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