species differences
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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Yukiko Murata ◽  
Sibylle Neuhoff ◽  
Amin Rostami-Hodjegan ◽  
Hiroyuki Takita ◽  
Zubida M. Al-Majdoub ◽  

AbstractDrug development for the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex endeavour with low success rates, as the structural complexity of the brain and specifically the blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses tremendous challenges. Several in vitro brain systems have been evaluated, but the ultimate use of these data in terms of translation to human brain concentration profiles remains to be fully developed. Thus, linking up in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) strategies to physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of brain is a useful effort that allows better prediction of drug concentrations in CNS components. Such models may overcome some known aspects of inter-species differences in CNS drug disposition. Required physiological (i.e. systems) parameters in the model are derived from quantitative values in each organ. However, due to the inability to directly measure brain concentrations in humans, compound-specific (drug) parameters are often obtained from in silico or in vitro studies. Such data are translated through IVIVE which could be also applied to preclinical in vivo observations. In such exercises, the limitations of the assays and inter-species differences should be adequately understood in order to verify these predictions with the observed concentration data. This report summarizes the state of IVIVE-PBPK-linked models and discusses shortcomings and areas of further research for better prediction of CNS drug disposition.

Xenobiotica ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Ayaka Kojima ◽  
Ayuka Sogabe ◽  
Masayuki Nadai ◽  
Miki Katoh

2022 ◽  
Veikko F. Geyer ◽  
Jonathon Howard ◽  
Pablo Sartori

AbstractBiological systems are robust to perturbations at both the genetic and environmental levels, although these same perturbations can elicit variation in behaviour. The interplay between functional robustness and behavioural variability is exemplified at the organellar level by the beating of cilia and flagella. Cilia are motile despite wide genetic diversity between and within species, differences in intracellular concentrations of ATP and calcium, and considerable environment fluctuations in temperature and viscosity. At the same time, these perturbations result in a variety of spatio-temporal patterns that span a rich behavioural space. To investigate this behavioural space we analysed the dynamics of isolated cilia from the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under many different environmental and genetic conditions. We found that, despite large changes in beat frequency and amplitude, the space of waveform shapes is low-dimensional in the sense that two features account for 80% of the observed variation. The geometry of this behavioural space accords with the predictions of a simple mechanochemical model in the low-viscosity regime. This allowed us to associate waveform shape variability with changes in only the curvature response coefficients of the dynein motors.

2022 ◽  
Marilyn N. Martinez ◽  
Mark G. Papich ◽  
Raafat Fahmy

Many gaps exist in our understanding of species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) fluid composition and the associated impact of food intake and dietary composition on in vivo drug solubilization. This information gap can lead to uncertainties with regard to how best to formulate pharmaceuticals for veterinary use or the in vitro test conditions that will be most predictive of species-specific in vivo oral product performance. To address these challenges, this overview explores species-specific factors that can influence oral drug solubility and the formulation approaches that can be employed to overcome solubility-associated bioavailability difficulties. These discussions are framed around some of the basic principles associated with drug solubilization, reported species differences in GI fluid composition, types of oral dosage forms typically given for the various animal species, and the effect of prandial state in dogs and cats. This basic information is integrated into a question-and-answer section that addresses some of the formulation issues that can arise in the development of veterinary medicinals.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Cristina Rodríguez-Melcón ◽  
Carlos Alonso-Calleja ◽  
Camino García-Fernández ◽  
Javier Carballo ◽  
Rosa Capita

When selecting effective doses of antimicrobials, be they biocides or antibiotics, it is essential to know the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of these substances. The present research determined the MICs and MBCs for three biocides, sodium hypochlorite (SH), benzalkonium chloride (BC), and peracetic acid (PAA), and nine antibiotics in eight strains of Listeria monocytogenes of varying serotypes. Marked intra-species differences were observed in the resistance of L. monocytogenes to the biocides and antibiotics. The MICs (ppm) for the biocides ranged between 1750 and 4500 for SH, 0.25 and 20.00 for BC, and 1050 and 1700 for PAA. Their MBCs (ppm) ranged from 2250 to 4500 for SH, 0.50 to 20.00 for BC, and 1150 to 1800 for PAA. The MICs (ppm) for antibiotics lay between 1 and 15 for ampicillin, 8 and 150 for cephalothin, 20 and 170 for cefoxitin, 0.05 and 0.20 for erythromycin, 4 and 50 for chloramphenicol, 3 and 100 for gentamicin, 2 and 15 for tetracycline, 2 and 80 for vancomycin, and 160 and 430 for fosfomycin. The corresponding MBCs (ppm) were from 5 to 20 for ampicillin, 9 to 160 for cephalothin, 70 to 200 for cefoxitin, 4 to 5 for erythromycin, 9 to 70 for chloramphenicol, 5 to 100 for gentamicin, 3 to 30 for tetracycline, 3 to 90 for vancomycin, and 160 to 450 for fosfomycin. Notably, erythromycin showed considerable efficacy, demonstrated by the low values for both MIC and MBC. Based on EUCAST and the CLSI criteria, all strains were susceptible to erythromycin. All strains were resistant to cephalothin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, and fosfomycin. Further values for resistance were 87.50% for ampicillin and vancomycin, 75.00% for tetracycline, and 62.50% for chloramphenicol. The high prevalence of antibiotic resistance is a matter for concern. A positive correlation was found between MIC and MBC values for most of the biocides and antibiotics. The higher the hydrophobicity of the cell surface, the higher the susceptibility to biocides, suggesting that surface characteristics of bacterial cells influence resistance to these compounds.

Ute Radespiel ◽  
Romule Rakotondravony ◽  
Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona ◽  
Blanchard Randrianambinina

AbstractSeasonal reproduction is widespread among primates but the degree of reproductive synchrony and plasticity can vary, even between closely related species. This study compares the dynamics of female reproductive seasonality in two mouse lemur species, Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis, in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar, across 24 years. We collected 4321 records of female reproductive state from 1033 individual females (319 M. murinus, 714 M. ravelobensis). The analyses revealed disparate reproductive schedules: While female M. murinus showed high degrees of reproductive synchrony throughout all years, leading to the production of two successive litters, the seasonal onset of estrus (= reproductive activation) in female M. ravelobensis was more flexible than in M. murinus, starting 2-4 weeks earlier, varying by up to 4 weeks between years, and being less synchronized. M. ravelobensis females became reproductively active later in years with more rainfall, in particular rain in February, but the timing of reproductive activation was not related to differences in temperatures. The likelihood of early conception was significantly lower in M. ravelobensis than in M. murinus. This was partly due to delayed reproductive activation in young animals, and a lower likelihood of early conception for females with low body mass in M. ravelobensis. Our results suggest high, adaptive reproductive plasticity in M. ravelobensis that may enable individuals to respond flexibly to yearly environmental changes and expand the reproductive period under favorable conditions. These species differences in reproductive schedules may be the result of the divergent evolutionary histories of the two mouse lemur species in different parts of Madagascar.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13293
Xiaoting Xu ◽  
Xi Zhang ◽  
Yuzhu Yuan ◽  
Yongrui Zhao ◽  
Hamza M. Fares ◽  

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that regulates a wide range of biological and toxicological effects by binding to specific ligands. AhR ligands exist in various internal and external ecological systems, such as in a wide variety of hydrophobic environmental contaminants and naturally occurring chemicals. Most of these ligands have shown differential responses among different species. Understanding the differences and their mechanisms helps in designing better experimental animal models, improves our understanding of the environmental toxicants related to AhR, and helps to screen and develop new drugs. This review systematically discusses the species differences in AhR activation effects and their modes of action. We focus on the species differences following AhR activation from two aspects: (1) the molecular configuration and activation of AhR and (2) the contrast of cis-acting elements corresponding to AhR. The variations in the responses seen in humans and other species following the activation of the AhR signaling pathway can be attributed to both factors.

2021 ◽  
pp. DMD-AR-2021-000582
Zitao Guo ◽  
Mengling Liu ◽  
Jian Meng ◽  
Yaru Xue ◽  
Qi Huang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wei Zou ◽  
Birui Shi ◽  
Ting Zeng ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Baolin Huang ◽  

The kidneys are a pair of important organs that excretes endogenous waste and exogenous biological agents from the body. Numerous transporters are involved in the excretion process. The levels of these transporters could affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs, such as organic anion drugs, organic cationic drugs, and peptide drugs. Eleven drug transporters in the kidney (OAT1, OAT3, OATP4C1, OCT2, MDR1, BCRP, MATE1, MATE2-K, OAT4, MRP2, and MRP4) have become necessary research items in the development of innovative drugs. However, the levels of these transporters vary between different species, sex-genders, ages, and disease statuses, which may lead to different pharmacokinetics of drugs. Here, we review the differences of the important transports in the mentioned conditions, in order to help clinicians to improve clinical prescriptions for patients. To predict drug-drug interactions (DDIs) caused by renal drug transporters, the molecular docking method is used for rapid screening of substrates or inhibitors of the drug transporters. Here, we review a large number of natural products that represent potential substrates and/or inhibitors of transporters by the molecular docking method.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026119292110622
Michael Balls

The Three Rs ( reduction, refinement, replacement) concept put forward by Russell and Burch now appears to be widely accepted. However, their warnings concerning reliance on animals as models for humans, the insurmountable problem of species differences and the impact of human variation, have been downplayed or even ignored. Schemes for harm–benefit analysis have been introduced, but the focus has largely been on harm to the animals, rather than on the direct and indirect benefit to humans, which is much more difficult to evaluate. Greater recognition should be given to the direct or indirect harm to humans resulting from the current over-reliance of biomedical research and testing on data obtained from animal experiments. That will be hard to achieve in the current climate, given the vigorous defence of animal experimentation by those with vested interests, confusion over responsibilities for regulating animal experimentation, hierarchies of regulatory authorities which require or limit experiments on animals, and exaggerated claims about the current availability of new approach methodologies (NAMs) and relevant and reliable strategies for their use. Those who defend animal experimentation at almost any cost must bear part of the responsibility for the human harms which result. Meanwhile, much greater effort should be put into the development, validation and application of new approaches not involving animals.

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