Extracellular Vesicles from Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Promote Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 293-298
Wenxiu Qian ◽  
Guomin Li

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumor development and metastasis. Emerging evidence shows that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are an important component of tumor microenvironment, which participate in the communication between normal cells and tumor cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of EVs derived from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) on tumor angiogenesis. We found that ESCC cell-derived EVs promoted the proliferation, migration, and tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro, and enhanced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggest that ESCC cell-derived EVs could promote angio-genesis and tumor growth, which also indicated the application of EVs as a valuable therapeutic strategy of ESCC.

Zhirong Li ◽  
Xuebo Qin ◽  
Wei Bian ◽  
Yishuai Li ◽  
Baoen Shan ◽  

Abstract Background In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are of great importance in development of different types of tumors, while the function of lncRNA ZFAS1 is rarely discussed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Therefore, we performed this study to explore the expression of exosomal lncRNA ZFAS1 and its molecular mechanism on ESCC progression. Methods Expression of ZFAS1 and miR-124 in ESCC tissues was detected. LncRNA ZFAS1 was silenced to detect its function in the biological functions of ESCC cells. A stable donor and recipient culture model was established. Eca109 cells transfected with overexpressed and low expressed ZFAS1 plasmid and miR-124 inhibitor labeled by Cy3 were the donor cells, and then co-cultured with recipient cells to observe the transmission of Cy3-ZFAS1 between donor cells and recipient cells. The changes of cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration in recipient cells were detected. The in vivo experiment was conducted for verifying the in vitro results. Results LncRNA ZFAS1 was upregulated and miR-124 was down-regulated in ESCC tissues. Silencing of ZFAS1 contributed to suppressed proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor growth in vitro and induced apoptosis of ESCC cells. LncRNA ZFAS1 was considered to be a competing endogenous RNA to regulate miR-124, thereby elevating STAT3 expression. Exosomes shuttled ZFAS1 stimulated proliferation, migration and invasion of ESCC cells and restricted their apoptosis with increased STAT3 and declined miR-124. Furthermore, in vivo experiment suggested that elevated ZFAS1-exo promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Conclusion This study highlights that exosomal ZFAS1 promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of ESCC cells and inhibits their apoptosis by upregulating STAT3 and downregulating miR-124, thereby resulting in the development of tumorigenesis of ESCC.

2020 ◽  
Hu Zhang ◽  
Enchun Pan ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Chao Zhao ◽  
Qiwei Liu ◽  

Abstract Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are abnormally expressed in a broad type of cancers and play significant roles that regulate tumor development and metastasis. However, the pathological roles of lncRNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unknown. Here we aimed to investigate the role and regulatory mechanism of the novel lncRPL34-AS1 in the development and progression of ESCC. Methods: The expression level of lncRPL34-AS1 in ESCC tissues and different cell lines was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to evaluate the regulatory effect of histone modification on lncRPL34-AS1. Then, functional experiments in vitro and in vivo were employed to explore the effects of lncRPL34-AS1 on tumor growth and metastasis in ESCC. Mechanistically, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), bioinformatics analyses, luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and western blot assays were used to detect the regulatory relationship between lncRPL34-AS1, miR-575 and ACAA2. In addition, comprehensive identification of RNA binding proteins (ChIRP), mass spectrometry, and RIP assay were used to identify lncRPL34-AS1-interacting proteins.Results: LncRPL34-AS1 was significantly down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cells, which was negatively correlated with overall survival in ESCC patients. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays indicated that gain of H3K4me3 and H3K27 acetylation-activated lncRPL34-AS1 was down-regulated in ESCC. Functionally, upregulation of lncRPL34-AS1 dramatically suppressed ESCC cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in vitro, whereas knockdown of lncRPL34-AS1 elicited the opposite function. Consistently, overexpression of lncRPL34-AS1 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, lncRPL34-AS1 acted as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-575 to relieve the repressive effect of miR-575 on its target ACAA2, then suppressed the tumorigenesis of ESCC. In addition, protein ALOX12B and CAT resulted direct binding targets of lncRPL34‐AS1 and affected biological process in ESCC. Conclusions: Together, our results reveal a role for lncRPL34-AS1 in ESCC tumorigenesis and may provide a strategy for using lncRPL34-AS1 as a potential biomarker and a therapeutic target for patients with ESCC.

2021 ◽  
Donghao Wang ◽  
Ning Yang ◽  
Xiaofan Zhang ◽  
Mingzhu Li ◽  
Xin Li ◽  

Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for 90% of esophageal cancer and has a high mortality rate worldwide. The clinical treatment of ESCC is mainly surgical resection. The five-year survival rate of ESCC patients in developing countries is less than 20%. Therefore, identifying new and effective drugs that can prevent the occurrence and recurrence of ESCC is clinically significant. Here, daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, was found to have an anticancer effect on ESCC. Methods We investigated the effects of daurisoline on ESCC cell growth and proliferation using ESCC cell lines (KYSE150 and KYSE450 cells) and tumor growth in an ESCC patient-derived xenograft model. Phosphoproteomics was used to identify changes in protein phosphorylation after daurisoline treatment. Molecular docking simulation, pull down assay and amino acid mutation experiments were conducted to determine the target proteins and specific amino acid binding sites of daurisoline. In vitro kinase assay was used to determine the effect of daurisoline on protein phosphorylation. The correlation between MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 expression levels in ESCC was analyzed using TCGA database. Results In vitro experiments showed that daurisoline inhibited the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of ESCC cells. In vivo experiments indicated that daurisoline significantly inhibited tumor growth. Phosphoproteomics analysis revealed that daurisoline reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. A pull down assay showed that daurisoline could bind to MEK1/2. In vitro kinase assay confirmed that daurisoline inhibited the biological functions of MEK1/2. We observed a significant correlation between MEK1 and ERK2 in ESCC from the TCGA database. Conclusion Daurisoline is a MEK1/2 inhibitor that suppressed ESCC growth in vitro and in vivo.

2016 ◽  
Vol 2016 ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
Zhaoming Lu ◽  
Kezheng Peng ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Hong-Min Liu ◽  
Guiqin Hou

It has been demonstrated that mTOR/p70S6K pathway was abnormally activated in many cancers and rapamycin and its analogs can restrain tumor growth through inhibiting this pathway, but some tumors including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) appear to be insensitive to rapamycin in recent studies. In the present study, we explored the measures to improve the sensitivity of ESCC cells to rapamycin and identified the clinical significance of the expression of phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K). The results showed that, after downregulating the expression of p70S6K and p-p70S6K by p70S6K siRNA, the inhibitory effects of rapamycin on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and tumor growth were significantly enhancedin vitroandin vivo. Furthermore, p-p70S6K had strong positive expression in ESCC tissues and its expression was closely related to lymph node metastasis and the TNM staging. These results indicated that p-p70S6K may participate in the invasion and metastasis in the development of ESCC and downregulation of the expression of p-p70S6K could improve the sensitivity of cells to rapamycin in ESCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Peiyan Hua ◽  
Ruimin Wang ◽  
Jindong Li ◽  
Guangxin Zhang ◽  

Abstract Objective Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is featured by early metastasis and late diagnosis. MicroRNA-301 (miR-301) is known to participate in diverse cancers. Nevertheless, effects of miR-301 on ESCC remain unexplored. Thus, we aim to explore the role of miR-301 in ESCC progression. Methods Expression of miR-301 and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in ESCC tissues and cell lines was assessed. Next, the screened cells were treated with altered miR-301 or PTEN oligonucleotide and plasmid, and then, the colony formation ability, cell viability, migration, invasion, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of ESCC cells were assessed. Moreover, tumor growth and microvessel density (MVD) were also assessed, and the targeting relationship between miR-301 and PTEN was affirmed. Results MiR-301 was upregulated, and PTEN was downregulated in ESCC tissues and cells. KYSE30 cells and Eca109 cells were selected for functional assays. In KYSE30 cells, inhibited miR-301 or overexpressed PTEN suppressed cell malignant behaviors, and silenced PTEN eliminated the impact of miR-301 inhibition on ESCC progression. In Eca109 cells, miR-301 overexpression or PTEN inhibition promoted cell malignant behaviors, and PTEN overexpression reversed the effects of miR-301 elevation on ESCC progression. The in vivo assay revealed that miR-301 inhibition or PTEN overexpression repressed ESCC tumor growth and MVD, and miR-301 elevation or PTEN reduction had contrary effects. Moreover, PTEN was targeted by miR-301. Conclusion Taken together, results in our study revealed that miR-301 affected cell growth, metastasis and angiogenesis via regulating PTEN expression in ESCC.

Xuechao Jia ◽  
Chuntian Huang ◽  
Yamei Hu ◽  
Qiong Wu ◽  
Fangfang Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive and lethal cancer with a low 5 year survival rate. Identification of new therapeutic targets and its inhibitors remain essential for ESCC prevention and treatment. Methods TYK2 protein levels were checked by immunohistochemistry. The function of TYK2 in cell proliferation was investigated by MTT [(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and anchorage-independent cell growth. Computer docking, pull-down assay, surface plasmon resonance, and kinase assay were used to confirm the binding and inhibition of TYK2 by cirsiliol. Cell proliferation, western blot and patient-derived xenograft tumor model were used to determine the inhibitory effects and mechanism of cirsiliol in ESCC. Results TYK2 was overexpressed and served as an oncogene in ESCC. Cirsiliol could bind with TYK2 and inhibit its activity, thereby decreasing dimer formation and nucleus localization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Cirsiliol could inhibit ESCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions TYK2 is a potential target in ESCC, and cirsiliol could inhibit ESCC by suppression of TYK2.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xiaodan Wu ◽  
Yihui Fan ◽  
Yupeng Liu ◽  
Biao Shen ◽  
Haimin Lu ◽  

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the current study, we identified CCAT2 as a relevant lncRNA and investigated its role in the progression of ESCC. RT-qPCR was adopted to detect CCAT2 expression in collected clinical samples, ESCC cell lines, and a normal cell line. We tested the correlation between CCAT2 expression and the prognosis of ESCC. RT-qPCR or immunoblotting was adopted to detect the expression of relevant factors in ESCC tissues or cells. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were examined by colony formation assay, flow cytometry, scratch assay, and Transwell assay, respectively, while subcutaneous tumorigenesis in nude mice was adopted to examine the role of CCAT2 in tumorigenesis of ESCC cells in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis, dual luciferase reporter assay, and RIP were conducted for the target relationship profiling. Me-RIP was adopted to detect m6A modification level of TK1 in ESCC tissues or cells. Upregulated CCAT2, IGF2BP2, and TK1 expression and inhibited miR-200b expression were observed in ESCC cells and tissues. CCAT2 bound to miR-200b and reduced its expression, leading to upregulated IGF2BP2 expression. IGF2BP2 improved TK1 mRNA stability to enhance its expression by recognizing its m6A modification. CCAT2 promoted the migration and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro, and tumorigenesis in vivo by upregulating TK1 expression, while overexpression of miR-200b reversed these effects of CCAT2. Overall, this study suggests that CCAT2 competitively binds to miR-200b to alleviate its inhibitory effects on IGF2BP2 expression, resulting in elevated TK1 expression, and an ensuing promotion of the development of ESCC.

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