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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 293-298
Wenxiu Qian ◽  
Guomin Li

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumor development and metastasis. Emerging evidence shows that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are an important component of tumor microenvironment, which participate in the communication between normal cells and tumor cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of EVs derived from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) on tumor angiogenesis. We found that ESCC cell-derived EVs promoted the proliferation, migration, and tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro, and enhanced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggest that ESCC cell-derived EVs could promote angio-genesis and tumor growth, which also indicated the application of EVs as a valuable therapeutic strategy of ESCC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-39
Wei-Qiang Tang ◽  
Jing Lin ◽  

AIM: To determine the role of heparanase-1 (HPSE-1) in orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and to investigate the feasibility of HPSE-1 targeted therapy for RMS. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze HPSE-1 expression in 51 cases of orbital RMS patients (including 28 cases of embryonal RMS and 23 cases of alveolar RMS), among whom there were 27 treated and 24 untreated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. In vitro, studies were conducted to examine the effect of HPSE-1 silencing on RMS cell proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RD cells (an RMS cell line) and HUVECs were infected with HPSE-1 shRNA lentivirus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 and 30 separately. Real-time PCR and Western blot were applied to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of HPSE-1. Cell viability of treated or control RD cells was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Matrigel tube formation assay was used to evaluate the effect of HPSE-1 RNAi on the tube formation of HUVECs. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression rate of HPSE-1 protein was 92.9% in orbital embryonal RMS and 91.3% in orbital alveolar RMS. Tissue from alveolar orbital RMS did not show relatively stronger staining than that from the embryonal orbital RMS. However, despite the types of RMS, comparing the cases treated chemoradiotherapy with those untreated, we have observed that chemoradiotherapy resulted in weaker staining in patients' tissues. The expression levels of HPSE-1 declined significantly in both the mRNA and protein levels in HPSE-1 shRNA transfected RD cells. The CCK-8 assay showed that lentivirus-mediated HPSE-1 silencing resulted in significantly reduced RD cells viability in vitro. Silencing HPSE-1 expression also inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation of HUVECs in Matrigel. CONCLUSION: HPSE-1 silencing may be a promising therapy for the inhibition of orbital RMS progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kaixuan Lv ◽  
Lingyu Kong ◽  
Mei Yang ◽  
Linlin Zhang ◽  
Shangmin Chu ◽  

Atherosclerosis (AS) seriously impairs the health of human beings and is manifested initially as endothelial cells (ECs) impairment and dysfunction in vascular intima, which can be alleviated through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by stromal-cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). A strong inverse correlation between HDL and AS has been proposed. The aim of the present work is to investigate whether 4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, major component protein of HDL) mimic peptide, can upregulate SDF-1α in mice and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying mechanism. The protein levels of SDF-1α were measured by ELISA assay. Protein levels of HIF-1α, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) were evaluated by Western blotting analysis. The results show that L-4F significantly upregulates protein levels of HIF-1α, Akt, and ERK, which can be inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, or ERK inhibitor, PD98059, respectively. Particularly, LY294002 can downregulate the levels of p-ERK, while PD98059 cannot suppress that of p-Akt. D-4F can upregulate the levels of HIF, p-Akt, and p-ERK in the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava from mice. These results suggest that 4F promotes SDF-1α expression in ECs through PI3K/Akt/ERK/HIF-1α signaling pathway.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 383
Jianlin Zhu ◽  
Lu Wang ◽  
Fan Liu ◽  
Jinghua Pan ◽  
Zhimeng Yao ◽  

Abnormal angiogenesis is one of the important hallmarks of colorectal cancer as well as other solid tumors. Optimally, anti-angiogenesis therapy could restrain malignant angiogenesis to control tumor expansion. PELP1 is as a scaffolding oncogenic protein in a variety of cancer types, but its involvement in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, PELP1 was found to be abnormally upregulated and highly coincidental with increased MVD in CRC. Further, treatment with conditioned medium (CM) from PELP1 knockdown CRC cells remarkably arrested the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to those treated with CM from wildtype cells. Mechanistically, the STAT3/VEGFA axis was found to mediate PELP1-induced angiogenetic phenotypes of HUVECs. Moreover, suppression of PELP1 reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo accompanied by inactivation of STAT3/VEGFA pathway. Notably, in vivo, PELP1 suppression could enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, which is caused by the normalization of vessels. Collectively, our findings provide a preclinical proof of concept that targeting PELP1 to decrease STAT3/VEGFA-mediated angiogenesis and improve responses to chemotherapy due to normalization of vessels. Given the newly defined contribution to angiogenesis of PELP1, targeting PELP1 may be a potentially ideal therapeutic strategy for CRC as well as other solid tumors.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2020-216807
Koralia Paschalaki ◽  
Christos Rossios ◽  
Charis Pericleous ◽  
Mairi MacLeod ◽  
Stephen Rothery ◽  

Cellular senescence contributes to the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease. Using endothelial colony-forming-cells (ECFC), we have demonstrated accelerated senescence in smokers and patients with COPD compared with non-smokers. Subgroup analysis suggests that ECFC from patients with COPD on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (n=14; eight on ICS) exhibited significantly reduced senescence (Senescence-associated-beta galactosidase activity, p21CIP1), markers of DNA damage response (DDR) and IFN-γ-inducible-protein-10 compared with patients with COPD not on ICS. In vitro studies using human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells showed a protective effect of ICS on the DDR, senescence and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress, suggesting a protective molecular mechanism of action of corticosteroids on endothelium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Tian Carey ◽  
Abdelnour Alhourani ◽  
Ruiyuan Tian ◽  
Shayan Seyedin ◽  
Adrees Arbab ◽  

AbstractThe scalable production of two-dimensional (2D) materials is needed to accelerate their adoption to industry. In this work, we present a low-cost in-line and enclosed process of exfoliation based on high-shear mixing to create aqueous dispersions of few-layer graphene, on a large scale with a Yw ~ 100% yield by weight and throughput of ϕ ~ 8.3 g h−1. The in-line process minimises basal plane defects compared to traditional beaker-based shear mixing which we attribute to a reduced Reynolds number, Re ~ 105. We demonstrate highly conductive graphene material with conductivities as high as σ ∼ 1.5 × 104 S m−1 leading to sheet-resistances as low as Rs ∼ 2.6 Ω □−1 (t ∼ 25 μm). The process is ideal for formulating non-toxic, biocompatible and highly concentrated (c ∼ 100 mg ml−1) inks. We utilise the graphene inks for inkjet printable conductive interconnects and lithium-ion battery anode composites that demonstrate a low-rate lithium storage capability of 370 mAh g−1, close to the theoretical capacity of graphite. Finally, we demonstrate the biocompatibility of the graphene inks with human colon cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells at high c ∼ 1 mg ml−1 facilitating a route for the use of the graphene inks in applications that require biocompatibility at high c such as electronic textiles.

2022 ◽  
Matthias Brandt ◽  
Volker Gerke ◽  
Timo Betz

As endothelial cells form the inner layer of blood vessels they display the first barrier to interstitial tissues, which results in a crucial role for inflammation. On the global, systemic level an important element of the complex process controlling the inflammatory response is the release of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). While other pro-inflammatory agents like thrombin or histamine are known to induce acute but transient changes in endothelial cells which have been well studied biologically as well as mechanically, TNF-α is primarily known for its sustained effects on permeability and leukocyte recruitment. These functions are associated with transcriptional changes that take place on the timescale of hours and days. Here we show that already 4 minutes after the addition of TNF-α onto monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, a striking rise in mechanical substrate traction force and internal monolayer tension can be recorded. As expected, the traction forces act primarily at the boundary of the monolayer. While the traction forces increase monotonically during the initial cellular response, we find that the internal monolayer tension displays a rapid peak that can be abolished when applying a shear flow to the cells. The increased internal monolayer tension may provide a mechanical signal for the cells to prepare for the recruitment of leukocytes, additionally to the well studied biochemical response.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Che Zhao ◽  
Chengju Sheng ◽  
Chao Zhou

Traditional antibacterial hydrogels have a broad-spectrum bactericidal effect and are widely used as wound dressings. However, the biological toxicity and drug resistance of these antibacterial hydrogels cannot meet the requirements of long-term clinical application. Imidazolium poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) are polymeric antibacterial agents exhibiting strong antibacterial properties, as they contain a strong positive charge. In this study, two imidazolium PILs, namely poly(N-butylimidazolium propiolic acid sodium) (PBP) and poly(N-(3,6-dioxaoctane) imidazolium propiolic acid sodium) (PDP), as high efficiency antibacterial agents, were synthesized by polycondensation reaction. Then, the PILs were compounded with polyethylene glycol (PEG) by a thiol-yne click reaction to prepare injectable antibacterial hydrogels. An in vitro assay showed that the injectable antibacterial hydrogels could not only quickly kill Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), but also had low toxicity for human skin fibroblasts cells (HSFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively. Additionally, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inflammation model revealed that the injectable antibacterial hydrogels also had anti-inflammatory effects, which would be advantageous to accelerate wound healing.

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