Cell Growth
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Guokun Liu ◽  
Xuan Du ◽  
Li Xiao ◽  
Qing Zeng ◽  
QianLing Liu

Accumulating evidence has elucidated the biological function of lncRNAs in various tumors. FGD5 antisense RNA 1 (FGD5-AS1) is identified as a significant tumor regulator in malignancies. Up to now, the detailed function of FGD5-AS1 in cervical cancer and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain uninvestigated. Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) can play critical roles in immune response, and the roles of BST2 in cervical cancer was explored currently. The level of FGD5-AS1 and BST2 was detected by qRT-PCR in cervical cancer cells. FGD5-AS1 and BST2 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cells. Then, the decrease of FGD5-AS1 greatly repressed cervical cancer cell growth in vitro. In addition, FGD5-AS1 silencing repressed BST2 expression and suppressed M2 macrophage polarization. Mechanistically, we confirmed that FGD5-AS1 sponged miR-129-5p to reduce its inhibition on BST2. Furthermore, lack of BST2 depressed cervical cancer cell growth, while inducing apoptosis. Loss of BST2 induced M1 macrophage polarization while blocking M2 macrophage polarization. For another, we demonstrated that FGD5-AS1-triggered M2 macrophage polarization was remarkably reversed by miR-129-5p via suppressing BST2. In conclusion, FGD5-AS1 induced M2 macrophage polarization via sponging miR-129-5p and modulating BST2, thus contributing to cervical cancer development. Our findings revealed FGD5-AS1/miR-129-5p/BST2 as a new potential target for cervical cancer.

2021 ◽  
María Laura Mugas ◽  
Gustavo Calvo ◽  
Juliana Marioni ◽  
Mariela Céspedes ◽  
Florencia Martinez ◽  

Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anticancer treatment involving administration of a tumour-localizing photosensitizer, followed by activation by light of a specific wavelength.In previous work, we showed that the natural anthraquinone (AQ) Parietin (PTN), was a promising photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of leukemic cells in vitro. The present work aimed to analyze the photosensitizing ability of PTN in the mammary carcinoma LM2 cells in vitro and in vivo in a model of subcutaneously implanted tumours.Photodynamic therapy mediated by Parietin (PTN-PDT) (PTN 30 µM, 1 h and 1.78 J/cm2 of blue light) impaired cell growth and migration of LM2 cells in vitro. PTN per se induced a significant decrease in cell migration, and it was even more marked after illumination (migration index was 0.65 for PTN and 0.30 for PTN-PDT), suggesting that both PTN and parietin-mediated PDT would be potential inhibitors of metastasis.Fluorescence microscopy observation indicated cytoplasmatic localization of the AQ and no fluorescence at all was recorded in the nuclei.When PTN (1.96 mg) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide was topically applied on the skin of mice subcutaneously implanted with LM2 cells, PTN orange fluorescence was strongly noticed in the stratum corneum and also in the inner layers of the tumour up to approximately 5 mm. After illumination with 12.74 J/cm2 of blue light, one PDT dose at day 1, induced a significant tumour growth delay at day 3, which was not maintained in time. Therefore, we administered a second PTN-PDT boost on day 3. Under these conditions, the delay of tumour growth was 28 % both on days 3 and 4 of the experiment.Histology of tumours revealed massive tumour necrosis up to 4 mm of depth. Intriguingly, a superficial area of viable tumour in the 1 mm superficial area, and a quite conserved intact skin was evidenced. We hypothesize that this may be due to PTN aggregation in contact with the skin and tumour milieu of the most superficial tumour layers, thus avoiding its photochemical properties.On the other hand, normal skin treated with PTN-PDT exhibited slight histological changes. These preliminary findings encourage further studies of natural AQs administered in different vehicles, for topical treatment of cutaneous malignancies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Fenryco Pratama ◽  
Dennis Linton ◽  
Neil Dixon

Abstract Background The production of N-linked glycoproteins in genetically amenable bacterial hosts offers great potential for reduced cost, faster/simpler bioprocesses, greater customisation, and utility for distributed manufacturing of glycoconjugate vaccines and glycoprotein therapeutics. Efforts to optimize production hosts have included heterologous expression of glycosylation enzymes, metabolic engineering, use of alternative secretion pathways, and attenuation of gene expression. However, a major bottleneck to enhance glycosylation efficiency, which limits the utility of the other improvements, is the impact of target protein sequon accessibility during glycosylation. Results Here, we explore a series of genetic and process engineering strategies to increase recombinant N-linked glycosylation, mediated by the Campylobacter-derived PglB oligosaccharyltransferase in Escherichia coli. Strategies include increasing membrane residency time of the target protein by modifying the cleavage site of its secretion signal, and modulating protein folding in the periplasm by use of oxygen limitation or strains with compromised oxidoreductase or disulphide-bond isomerase activity. These approaches achieve up to twofold improvement in glycosylation efficiency. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that supplementation with the chemical oxidant cystine enhances the titre of glycoprotein in an oxidoreductase knockout strain by improving total protein production and cell fitness, while at the same time maintaining higher levels of glycosylation efficiency. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that improved protein glycosylation in the heterologous host could be achieved by mimicking the coordination between protein translocation, folding and glycosylation observed in native host such as Campylobacter jejuni and mammalian cells. Furthermore, it provides insight into strain engineering and bioprocess strategies, to improve glycoprotein yield and titre, and to avoid physiological burden of unfolded protein stress upon cell growth. The process and genetic strategies identified herein will inform further optimisation and scale-up of heterologous recombinant N-glycoprotein production.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1248
Gayoung Lee ◽  
Jaehun Jeong ◽  
Yeeun Kim ◽  
Dahyun Kang ◽  
Sooyong Shin ◽  

Capacitive biosensors are manufactured on glass slides using the semiconductor process to monitor cell growth and cell–drug interactions in real time. Capacitance signals are continuously monitored for each 10 min interval during a 48 h period, with the variations of frequency from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The capacitance values showed a gradual increase with the increase in NIH 3T3 cell numbers. After 48 h of growth, 6.67 μg/mL puromycin is injected for the monitoring of the cell–drug interaction. The capacitance values rapidly increased during a period of about 10 h, reflecting the rapid increase in the cell numbers. In this study, we monitored the state of cells and the cell–drug interactions using the developed capacitive biosensor. Additionally, we monitored the state of cell behavior using a JuLiTM Br&FL microscope. The monitoring of cell state by means of a capacitive biosensor is more sensitive than confluence measuring using a JuLiTM Br&FL microscope image. The developed capacitive biosensor could be applied in a wide range of bio-medical areas; for example, non-destructive real-time cell growth and cell–drug interaction monitoring.

2021 ◽  
Laurence Legon ◽  
Christophe Corre ◽  
Declan G. Bates ◽  
Ahmad A. Mannan

Motivation: A widely applicable strategy for developing evolutionarily robust cell factories is to knock out (KO) genes or reactions to couple chemical synthesis with cell growth. Genome-scale metabolic models enable their rational design, but KOs that provide growth-coupling (gc) are rare in the immense design space, making searching difficult and slow, and though several measures determine the utility of those strains, few drive the search. Results: To address these issues we developed a software tool named gcFront - using a genetic algorithm it explores KOs that maximise key performance objectives: cell growth, product synthesis, and coupling strength. Our measure of coupling strength facilitates the search, so gcFront not only finds a gc-design in minutes but also outputs many alternative Pareto optimal gc-designs from a single run - granting users freedom to select designs to take to the lab.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Kenneth A. Matreyek ◽  
Jason J. Stephany ◽  
Ethan Ahler ◽  
Douglas M. Fowler

Abstract Background PTEN is a multi-functional tumor suppressor protein regulating cell growth, immune signaling, neuronal function, and genome stability. Experimental characterization can help guide the clinical interpretation of the thousands of germline or somatic PTEN variants observed in patients. Two large-scale mutational datasets, one for PTEN variant intracellular abundance encompassing 4112 missense variants and one for lipid phosphatase activity encompassing 7244 variants, were recently published. The combined information from these datasets can reveal variant-specific phenotypes that may underlie various clinical presentations, but this has not been comprehensively examined, particularly for somatic PTEN variants observed in cancers. Methods Here, we add to these efforts by measuring the intracellular abundance of 764 new PTEN variants and refining abundance measurements for 3351 previously studied variants. We use this expanded and refined PTEN abundance dataset to explore the mutational patterns governing PTEN intracellular abundance, and then incorporate the phosphatase activity data to subdivide PTEN variants into four functionally distinct groups. Results This analysis revealed a set of highly abundant but lipid phosphatase defective variants that could act in a dominant-negative fashion to suppress PTEN activity. Two of these variants were, indeed, capable of dysregulating Akt signaling in cells harboring a WT PTEN allele. Both variants were observed in multiple breast or uterine tumors, demonstrating the disease relevance of these high abundance, inactive variants. Conclusions We show that multidimensional, large-scale variant functional data, when paired with public cancer genomics datasets and follow-up assays, can improve understanding of uncharacterized cancer-associated variants, and provide better insights into how they contribute to oncogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Ho-Joon Lee ◽  
Fangzhou Shen ◽  
Alec Eames ◽  
Mark P Jedrychowski ◽  
Sriram Chandrasekaran

Cell cycle is a fundamental process for cell growth and proliferation, and its dysregulation leads to many diseases. How metabolic networks are regulated and rewired during the cell cycle is unknown. Here we apply a dynamic genome-scale metabolic modeling framework (DFA) to simulate a cell cycle of cytokine-activated murine pro-B cells. Phase-specific reaction activity predicted by DFA using time-course metabolomics were validated using matched time-course proteomics and phospho-proteomics data. Our model correctly predicted changes in methionine metabolism at the G1/S transition and the activation of lysine metabolism, nucleotides synthesis, fatty acid elongation and heme biosynthesis at the critical G0/G1 transition into cell growth and proliferation. Metabolic fluxes predicted from proteomics and phosphoproteomics constrained metabolic models were highly consistent with DFA fluxes and revealed that most reaction fluxes are regulated indirectly. Our model can help predict the impact of changes in nutrients, enzymes, or regulators on this critical cellular process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Rulan Ma ◽  
Kun Zhu ◽  
Dawei Yuan ◽  
Meijun Gong ◽  
Yijun Li ◽  

Abstract Background The function and regulatory mechanism of FBXO43 in breast cancer (BC) are still unclear. Here, we intended to determine the role and mechanism of FBXO43 in BC. Methods FBXO43 expression in BC was evaluated by analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RT-qPCR and western blotting were utilized to detect FBXO43 expression in BC cell lines. Lentivirus was applied to downregulate FBXO43 in human BC cells. Proliferation assays were performed to evaluate the proliferative ability of BC cells. The apoptosis and cell cycle analysis of BC cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion were investigated via Transwell assays. The function of FBXO43 in vivo was evaluated by constructing a xenograft mouse model. The proteins that might interact with FBXO43 in BC were identified by mass spectrometry, bioinformatics analysis, and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Finally, rescue experiments were conducted to validate the recovery effects of the proteins interacting with FBXO43. Results FBXO43 was highly expressed in BC and was significantly downregulated after FBXO43 knockdown. The proliferation, migration, and invasion of BC cells were inhibited, and cell apoptosis was induced by FBXO43 knockdown. In addition, an in vivo experiment indicated that FBXO43 knockdown could inhibit the cell growth of BC. The results of the Co-IP assay showed that FBXO43 interacted with PCNA. Further rescue experiments confirmed that overexpression of PCNA significantly reversed the effects of FBXO43 knockdown on BC cells. Conclusion Downregulation of FBXO43 inhibits the tumor growth of BC by limiting its interaction with PCNA. FBXO43 might be a new potential oncogene and a therapeutic target for BC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Ai-Ping Pang ◽  
Funing Zhang ◽  
Xin Hu ◽  
Yongsheng Luo ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Cellulase synthesized by fungi can environment-friendly and sustainably degrades cellulose to fermentable sugars for producing cellulosic biofuels, biobased medicine and fine chemicals. Great efforts have been made to study the regulation mechanism of cellulase biosynthesis in fungi with the focus on the carbon sources, while little attention has been paid to the impact and regulation mechanism of nitrogen sources on cellulase production. Results Glutamine displayed the strongest inhibition effect on cellulase biosynthesis in Trichoderma reesei, followed by yeast extract, urea, tryptone, ammonium sulfate and l-glutamate. Cellulase production, cell growth and sporulation in T. reesei RUT-C30 grown on cellulose were all inhibited with the addition of glutamine (a preferred nitrogen source) with no change for mycelium morphology. This inhibition effect was attributed to both l-glutamine itself and the nitrogen excess induced by its presence. In agreement with the reduced cellulase production, the mRNA levels of 44 genes related to the cellulase production were decreased severely in the presence of glutamine. The transcriptional levels of genes involved in other nitrogen transport, ribosomal biogenesis and glutamine biosynthesis were decreased notably by glutamine, while the expression of genes relevant to glutamate biosynthesis, amino acid catabolism, and glutamine catabolism were increased noticeably. Moreover, the transcriptional level of cellulose signaling related proteins ooc1 and ooc2, and the cellular receptor of rapamycin trFKBP12 was increased remarkably, whose deletion exacerbated the cellulase depression influence of glutamine. Conclusion Glutamine may well be the metabolite effector in nitrogen repression of cellulase synthesis, like the role of glucose plays in carbon catabolite repression. Glutamine under excess nitrogen condition repressed cellulase biosynthesis significantly as well as cell growth and sporulation in T. reesei RUT-C30. More importantly, the presence of glutamine notably impacted the transport and metabolism of nitrogen. Genes ooc1, ooc2, and trFKBP12 are associated with the cellulase repression impact of glutamine. These findings advance our understanding of nitrogen regulation of cellulase production in filamentous fungi, which would aid in the rational design of strains and fermentation strategies for cellulase production in industry.

Aging ◽  
2021 ◽  
Yangyang Liu ◽  
Lu Liang ◽  
Liang Ji ◽  
Fuquan Zhang ◽  
Donglai Chen ◽  

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