Measuring Spatial Distribution in the Banking System in Hungary
Over the past decade, due in part to the global economic crisis, a significant part of the bank branches have been closed in the European banking system, but in Hungary this proportion has been significantly higher than the European average. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore what aspects of commercial banks are taken into account when deciding where to be present within bank branches. This will also reveal the spatial dimension of public access to financial services. The present study seeks to answer the question of which socio-economic factors and in what form they affect the spatial structure of bank branches. The settlement-level examination can also provide additional indication of which settlements may be affected by further bank branch closures. Linear regression based on Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) parameter estimation was used to explore the factors influencing the location of bank branches. In addition, the possible clustering of bank branches was observed, i.e., whether spatial autocorrelation was present at certain stages of the analysis. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was also estimated in the present study. Based on the results of the research, the resident population, the proportion of enterprises per capita, the average income, the number of neighbouring bank branches and the type of settlement all proved to be significant factors that may encourage decision-makers to establish a bank branch.